O estande da Baidu é visto na Feira Internacional de Tecnologia em Xangai em abril de 21.
(STR / AFP / Getty Images)O estande da Baidu é visto na Feira Internacional de Tecnologia em Xangai em abril de 21.
(STR / AFP / Getty Images)

posição do Baidu Inc. entre a elite triunvirato internet da China é em terreno movediço como as batalhas da empresa retardando o crescimento das vendas, incerteza regulatória, e uma caixa em curso queimar de diversificação.

A empresa tem um quase monopólio no negócio de busca na Internet da China depois que o Google saiu em 2010. Mas o ambiente de negócios está se deteriorando e os seus esforços para diversificar longe de busca que gera mais 90 retornos por cento das receitas do Baidu-se não produziram. Enquanto as vendas do segundo trimestre aumentou 10 por cento, os lucros caíram 36 ano por cento sobre o ano, a maior queda trimestral na empresa de 11 anos de história como uma entidade de capital aberto.

ADRs EUA-listados Baidu estão para baixo em torno de 6 por cento no ano-to-date. Sua capitalização de mercado está agora ofuscado por outros membros de três grandes gigantes da Internet o “BAT” do -China de Baidu, Grupo Alibaba, e Tencent Holdings.

Baidu_Alibaba

Baidu (INÍCIO)O valor de mercado da comparado ao Grupo Alibaba (BABA) e Tencent Holdings (TCTZF) durante os últimos cinco anos. (YCHARTS)

Ventos contrários reguladoras

Baidu deriva uma esmagadora maioria de suas vendas de publicidade vinculada a buscas, colocando a empresa no capricho e misericórdia do Partido Comunista Chinês, que mantém um controlo apertado sobre quadro de busca na Internet do país.

Uma vez que um queridinho do Partido, Baidu encontrou-se cada vez mais marginalizados por suas mudanças regulatórias. Pequim anunciou recentemente orientação exigindo que as empresas de publicidade online para restringir o número de publicidade para menos de 30 por cento de cada página. Um mandatos rugas adicionais que todos os anúncios on-line também deve ser claramente designadas como tal, para ajudar os consumidores a diferenciar entre os resultados de pesquisa patrocinados e verdadeiros.

Uma vez que um queridinho do Partido, Baidu encontrou-se cada vez mais marginalizados por suas mudanças regulatórias.

restrições regulamentares foram promulgadas após uma investigação da Baidu no início deste ano depois de um estudante universitário morreu de um tratamento de câncer anunciado on-line que o aluno encontrou via motor de busca do Baidu. limitações adicionais foram colocados sobre a publicidade on-line de serviços de saúde.

Estas restrições colocaram um amortecedor sobre o crescimento da receita de publicidade do Baidu por “redução do número de clientes on-line” disponível para a empresa, CEO Robin Li disse no último trimestre em relação à mudança enquanto reduz guidance de crescimento orgânico a partir 9 por cento para 5 por cento para 2016.

O ambiente regulatório desfavorável amorteceu as expectativas de seu estoque de alguns analistas. do JP Morgan Alex Yao detém uma classificação “underweight” na Baidu ações-uma minoria como a maioria dos analistas consultados na semana passada pelo S&P Inteligência de Mercado teve “outperform” ratings, com um preço-alvo baixou de $164, ou em torno de 8 por cento abaixo setembro. 2 perto. mesmo assim, vários analistas, incluindo aqueles a partir de Oppenheimer e Piper Jaffray, baixaram suas metas de preço ao longo do último mês, refletindo um deslocamento para baixo no sentimento.

Mudança Publicidade

Uma grande parte da avaliação pessimista do JP Morgan do Baidu é devido à mudança na indústria de dólares de publicidade de distância do motor de pesquisa em canais de mídia social.

Não procure mais do que Tencent, que está comendo o almoço do Baidu em publicidade on-line. Tencent é da China mídias sociais e jogos móveis rei, e o crescimento da receita de publicidade afluência tem refletido a mudança de paradigma na publicidade online. dados do segundo trimestre mostrou uma 60 por cento de aumento nas receitas de publicidade on-line para um registro 6.5 bilhões de yuans (sobre $1 bilhão).

Parte disso é devido à mudança dos consumidores de computadores para celular, beneficiando Weixin plataforma móvel da Tencent / WeChat, que conta 800 milhões de usuários. Tencent tem alavancado a plataforma para distribuir jogos para celular, conteúdo de vídeo, como filmes de Hollywood, e jogos de basquete da NBA.

A empresa tem gerado historicamente a maioria de suas receitas móveis de compras no jogo. Mas tomar uma página do recente sucesso do Facebook, Tencent tem trabalhado para monetizar sua base de usuários por publicidade móvel agressivamente empurrando dentro de seu aplicativo WeChat, cuja funcionalidade inclui bate-papo móvel, notícia, Atualizações sociais, e carteira móvel.

Diversificação

Com seus ventos contrários pão e publicidade on-line manteiga virado, Baidu está activamente à procura de um centro de lucro alternativa futura implantando bilhões em potenciais novas tecnologias, com foco em inteligência artificial (AI).

Semana passada, Baidu e americanos computação gráfica empresa de mídia Nvidia Corp. anunciaram que estavam colaborando em uma plataforma para carros semi-autônomos. Detalhes eram vagos durante a revelar na conferência Baidu Mundial sobre setembro. 1, mas o CEO da Nvidia Jen-Hsun Huang disse que a parceria vai permitir que “Baidu para obter uma frota de táxi de auto-condução em estrada, e a mesma plataforma também é projetado para uso em automóveis OEM, amarrado na mesma rede.”

Enquanto Nvidia se interessou em carros que dirigem sozinhos por anos, uma série de empresas milionárias de diversos setores estão disputando um avanço nesta plataforma. gigantes da tecnologia, como alfabeto e Apple, empresas de automóveis, tais como Tesla e Volvo, e companhias de táxi, como Uber estão todos com o objetivo de trazer tecnologias de Condução Autónoma para o mercado.

Para ajudar a impulsionar a inovação inteligência artificial, Baidu código aberto uma das suas principais plataformas de aprendizado de máquina chamado PaddlePaddle oferecendo livremente o software para especialistas AI.

Seguindo os passos da Microsoft e Amazon, Baidu está lançando seu kit de ferramentas para atrair AI talento e por sua vez, ajudar a moldar o desenvolvimento de um campo emergente que poderia sustentar futura tecnologia baseada consumidor.

Baidu espera que suas ferramentas vai pegar. Xu Wei, chefe de desenvolvimento de PaddlePaddle no Baidu, disse tecnologia focada site The Verge que sua plataforma AI precisa de apenas um quarto do código necessário em comparação com plataformas concorrentes para o software de tradução mesma máquina.

E alguns dos esforços existentes da empresa não garimpou para fora. Um exemplo é o recente cancelamento do programa de alimentação entrega zangão do Baidu chamado Baidu Takeaway, criado em 2015 para fornecer a distribuição de alimentos à base de drones. Mas Baidu decidido que o mercado de alimentos, a entrega não é escalável o suficiente para lucrar, dado que Baidu não tem instalações de fabricação de drones.

Com nenhuma das tecnologias acima prontos a dar frutos no futuro próximo, ele levanta as pressões de curto e médio prazo de perguntas podem visão de longo prazo do Baidu facilidade sobre suas ações?

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Morality and conscience cannot be bought and sold on the market like a commodity, and at the same time, properly functioning market economies must be based on a certain code of ethics. Claro, people and enterprises have sold out their principles for profit for centuries—the process is usually secretive, not subject to legal sanctions or easily definable in legal terms, and in most cases relies on the self-discipline of market participants.
Selling counterfeit drugs, por exemplo, is illegal and immoral. Contudo, if vendors who sell counterfeit drugs extend benefits for advertising for them, stating the drugs they sell are very good, then I can sell my morality by running these ads, even though I may not directly be breaking the law.
Baidu Profits by Selling Out
Baidu has been excoriated by the public after the college student Wei Zexi died after paying for a course of treatment that had no chance of success. Indeed, it’s known that Wei Zexi suffered from an incurable disease, and the possibility of curing him was not high—but this is not an excuse for private hospitals run by the Putian clan, a group of unscrupulous entrepreneurs from Fujian Province, to sell him counterfeit drugs at a high price and profit from someone about to die. Why are fake drugs so marketable? Because there’s a platform for them: Baidu. Baidu allows sellers to bid for the rank at which their search results appear, and it has created an enormous market for those who sell fake drugs. As long as you have money, Baidu can put you right on top of the search results.
Baidu’s 2014 annual report showed that online marketing revenue was 48.495 bilhões de yuans ($7.41 bilhão). Putian City Party Secretary Liang Jianyong once said in public: “Baidu’s total advertising revenue in 2013 estava 26 bilhões de yuans ($3.97 bilhão); Putian’s private hospitals spent 12 bilhões de yuans ($1.83 bilhão) advertising on Baidu.” Assume they spent the same amount of money in 2014; it accounted for 25 percent of their marketing revenue. We cannot say that all drugs made by Putian hospitals were fake, but based on most of those exposed Putian hospitals, the proportion of false advertising is extremely high.
Maybe Baidu isn’t responsible or equipped to discern the authenticity of all the advertising on its platform. And the same goes for Google. But Google isn’t allowed to do what Baidu is making so much money doing. [Nota do editor: Google was forced by the U.S. Department of Justice in 2011 to disgorge $500 million earned from advertising counterfeit drugs.]
Moral Economics
If morality can be traded, then human morality will be lost and society will eventually collapse. Despite the sale of ethics occurring from time to time, the moral bottom line cannot be traded—it’s priceless, and can’t be put out on the market for an exchange value. The concept of a “moral bottom line” concerns major principles related to human existence; once human beings are controlled by selfishness, society will lose balance. This view is the core of moral economics.
The British economist E.P. Thompson touched on morality in economics in writing about the changes in the United Kingdom during the 18th century, and the dimension of “moral economics” he introduced served as a counterpoint to the economic determinism set forth in Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations.” It set limits to economic development based on egoism: On major issues of public interest, it forbade selfishness and the violation of moral bottom lines.
Thompson wrote in his book “Customs in Common” that the reason society has been able to maintain balanced development for so long is not because of the power of money, but because people followed social moral norms.
The Idea of the ‘Moral Baseline’
Thompson wrote in his “Customs in Common” that the idea of a moral baseline refers to habits and norms that are passed down through tradition, based on social consensus.
The idea that children should have the right to education, por exemplo, did not stem from laws in the first place, but is part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Almost everyone agrees with this view. portanto, the denial of this right to children violates a moral baseline.
These moral baselines shouldn’t differ between cultures or economic systems, and should be a basic consensus among humans. It is the most basic achievement of human civilization, and the basic spiritual element to ensure human society continues forward.
This moral baseline also constrains and determines our conduct: Saving lives, por exemplo, is a basic norm. Medicines are supposed to be used to cure illness and save lives, thus we should not sell counterfeit drugs and kill for profit; food is used to sustain life and health, so we cannot sell toxic and harmful food; prices should not be jacked up during natural disasters; education is for people to learn the unknown, to innovate and open the door to the future, not to brainwash and mislead, and so on.
How China Lost Its Moral Baseline
Today’s China looks very wealthy and powerful on the surface. But what about inside? Our moral baseline is broken: toxic food, counterfeit drugs, education as business, GDP bought with blood, forced demolitions and relocations, lying as a habit, the refusal to help others, the intertwining of money and power, and more. Baidu is not the cause of these vices; it simply followed the trend to make money.
portanto, we can see that Baidu publicly trades in morality. How many businesses in China truly maintain a moral baseline? Is money more expensive than morality? Is wealth more important than conscience? In the face of these questions, we’ve already lost our bearings.
Fan Di is an independent economist and part-time professor at Peking University and Sun Yat-sen University. Ele obteve um Ph.D. at the University of California–Berkeley, supervisionada por Li Yining da Universidade de Pequim e ganhador do Prêmio Nobel George Arthur Akerlof. Fan tem sido um executivo sênior e consultor em grandes bancos, empresas financeiras, e grandes empresas.

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Faced with a long line for dialysis treatment, 29-year-old Li Qing turned to Baidu, China’s largest search engine, for an alternative medical treatment. Now a private hospital is trying to buy Li’s silence after her condition worsened under their care.
The case of Li Qing came under scrutiny from Chinese internet users in light of the recent death of a college student who used an unproven medical treatment that a hospital advertised on Baidu. Baidu was found to have ranked paid advertisements higher on its search list without prominently distinguishing them from other content.
Li was first diagnosed with uremiaa result of kidney diseaseat a provincial-level hospital in Xi’an, the capital of Shaanxi Province in central China, in April last year, according to a Hua Shang Daily report on May 18. Because the hospital had a long waiting list for dialysis treatment, Li and her family did a search on Baidu for other options, and decided to try the treatment ranked first on the search list.
Qikang Hospital of Chinese and Western Medicine advertised that it could treat uremia with minimal dialysis treatment and stem cell injections. No kidney transplants were necessary, the ad read.
So on April 6, Li started medical treatment at Qikang Hospital. She went for dialysis three times a week, received stem cell injections, and other treatment methods. A Dr. Zhao promised Li that she wouldn’t need dialysis in six months due to the stem cell injections.
But Li’s condition worsened, and she visited a public hospital in Xi’an for another checkup. The Xi’an hospital told her that the Qikang Hospital’s treatment was not medically provenstem cell treatment hasn’t been shown to have any effect, and uremia patients will always have to undergo dialysis.
After Li and her elder brother confronted Dr. Zhao with the facts, he told them that Li should continue with the treatment. Besides, Dr. Zhao said, other patients have paid more to stay on the treatment; by then, Li had already spent about 300,000 yuan (sobre $46,000).
Li put her story online, and it attracted much attention from Chinese internet users and the media, having taken place right after the recent death of student Wei Zexi, a 21-year-old from Shaanxi Province who perished of cancer after receiving unproven medical treatment from a Chinese military hospital. Wei’s death prompted a public inquest into Baidu’s ethical standards, and questions about military hospitals, which are considered to offer quality medical treatment.  
Hua Shang Daily reported that Dr. Zhao has been actively seeking out Li Qing and her brother to offer 20,000 yuan (sobre $3,000) in reimbursement money for medication she hasn’t taken.
“What is this 20,000 yuan for? To silence me?” Li told Dr. Zhao over the phone, according to Hua Shang Daily.
Qikang Hospital is also trying to get Li to sign an agreement that she would not speak out about her treatment after accepting compensation, and that she wouldn’t mention anything about their stem cell treatment.
Netizens on Sina Weibo, China’s popular microblogging website, wondered who was really to be blame for the incident.
“All I can say is that the medical supervisory body, not Baidu, should bear the biggest responsibility,” wrote “letonfrom Liaoning Province.
Others complained about the lack of transparency by the Chinese regime.
“0 Feng Huang 0from Guangdong wrote: “When attention on Wei Zexi subsided, those psoriasis-like ads begin to resurface a few days later, and are now everywhere. The authorities only reported what they had uncovered, without issuing any punishment or token policy. There’s no follow up. It’s just a going through of motions aimed at appeasing us stupid citizens.

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Beijing and Shanghai may lie almost 1,000 miles apart, but their metro riders share one thing in common. Each morning, commuters hunch over smartphones or tablets to watch the latest Chinese or Korean TV drama or Hollywood movies downloaded from the internet.
Chances are, those videos are downloaded or streamed for freevia legal means or pirated.
But that may be set to change. Internet and media giants are making massive bets in content and technologies, aiming to disrupt China’s longstanding culture of free web entertainment.
Their goal: encourage people to pay for content.
Appetite for Videos
China’s online video market is expected to reach RMB 36.8 bilhão (US$5.8 billion) dentro 2015, uma 50 percent increase from 2014, according to iResearch, a Chinese internet consultancy. Around RMB 15.2 billion of that figure comes from online video advertising, with the remainder consisting of subscriptions and purchases.
While that’s seems high, online video is still a small portion of the RMB 209 bilhão (US$32.9 billion) Chinese internet users expect to spend in overall online entertainment, which includes music and games.
This fragmented environment cemented China’s reputation as a market where copyrights go to die.

The gap is apparent when taken into context with how users spend their time online. As of June 2015, Chinese Internet users spent 33 percent of their time on the web on online videos. That’s by far the biggest chunk of time spent on online entertainment activitiessocial networking was 10.6 por cento, and online gaming was only 5.9 por cento. The remainder was spent on non-entertainment online activities.
Em outras palavras, revenues from online videos aren’t commensurate with usage demand. China has more than 650 million internet users, and monetizing the online video market has become an arms race between domestic internet giants.
Wild Wild West
The question is, how to convince millions of Chinese web users to pay for content?
In the United States, Hollywood movies generally follow the same distribution model. Films are shown in cinemas first, followed by DVD, Blu-ray, and streaming/on-demand platforms. Netflix, Amazon.com, and Hulu are the major players in online paid streaming video.
Media and entertainment giants view China as the new frontier. And in many ways, it’s still akin to the “Wild Wild West.
No specific distribution channel is customary for domestic Chinese movie releases. Studios may choose to debut films and TV shows on any number of distribution channels including online and mobile. Legal streaming services are numerous and fragmented, coexisting with a number of sites streaming low-quality pirated content.
This fragmented, free-for-all environment encouraged the rampant piracy that has plagued Chinese entertainment industry in recent decades, and cemented China’s reputation as a market where copyrights go to die.
Arms Race
There are new sheriffs in town. The impending culture shift is led by the “BAT,” China’s big three internet giants of Baidu, Alibaba, and Tencent.
Their strategy is to create online platforms with libraries of high-quality and desirable content in high definition, able to be streamed or downloaded on-the-go. With a compelling product, theyand Hollywood studioshope some users would move from illegal sites to these paid platforms. The services will be promoted alongside the internet giantsexisting productsthink Taobao, WeChat, and QQwhich already dominate the social lives of Chinese internet users.
“The generation of users born post 1990 understands the value of content. They are cash-rich, but time-poor. They are willing to pay for the convenience of accessing quality without having to go through the complications of finding illegal content,” Yang Xianghua, senior VP of iQIYI, said in an interview with Variety magazine.
Alibaba, which runs e-retailer Taobao and its namesake internet wholesaler website, is spending billions in this effort. em novembro. 6, Alibaba agreed to pay around US$4.4 billion to purchase the remaining stake of Youku Tudou it doesn’t already own. Youkua Chinese cross between YouTube and Huluhosts a number of well-known video bloggers, has a huge user base, and can drive traffic to Alibaba’s more lucrative online video ventures.
One service standing to benefit is Tmall Box Office, a streaming service launched by Alibaba earlier this year. Similar to Netflix, it requires monthly or annual subscriptions and offers a mix of Chinese and foreign movies and TV shows. Payments (around US$6 for the monthly plan) can be conveniently made viayou guessed itAlipay, the company’s online payment service.
Taking a page out of Netflix’s playbook, Alibaba is also turning itself into a movie studio. Hong Kong-based Alibaba Pictures was launched in March 2015 to produce Chinese-language TV shows and movies. It also invests in large-scale Hollywood productionsin June Alibaba signed a deal to invest an undisclosed amount in the next “Mission: Impossiblefilm. Last year the company obtained rights from Lionsgate to broadcast and stream movies such as “The Twilight Sagaand TV shows such as “Mad Menand “Weeds” na China.
Baidu, China’s No. 1 motor de pesquisa, also built its online video platform iQIYI into a major player in content streaming. Last month, iQIYI signed an agreement with Comcast Corp. to become the exclusive online distributor of Universal Studiosnew and existing films in China.
comc, which owns China’s biggest social media platforms QQ and WeChat, reached an agreement last week to become the exclusive online distributor of Paramount Picturesfuture releases including “Star Trek Beyond,” set to debut in 2016. The company also acquired online distribution rights to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s James Bond franchise, including the newly released “Spectre.
It already has a war chest of popular western films. Tencent owns online distribution rights to Walt Disney’s “Star Warsfranchise, Time Warner’s HBO properties, and recently acquired an equity stake in the upcoming movie adaptation of video game “Warcraft.
For Hollywood studios, China has long been a flawed market. Studios frequently face off against Beijing’s censorship police, which demands content alterations before release. Even after films are approved, box-office receipts are the only material form of revenues for studios. DVD and Blu-ray sales are virtually nonexistent due to rampant piracy.
To make up for this gap, NOS. studios see digital distribution as a potential new revenue stream in China. Timing will largely follow the U.S. distribution model. Por exemplo, MGM’s latest Bond film “Spectrewill be

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