During a rally joined by thousands of Falun Gong practitiioners at Taipei 23 四月 2006, four demonstrators play in an action drama against what they said was the Chinese communists' killing of Falun Gong followers and harvesting of their organs in concentration camps.  (PATRICK LIN/AFP/Getty Images)During a rally joined by thousands of Falun Gong practitiioners at Taipei 23 四月 2006, four demonstrators play in an action drama against what they said was the Chinese communists' killing of Falun Gong followers and harvesting of their organs in concentration camps.  (PATRICK LIN/AFP/Getty Images)

“There was bleeding. He was still alive’, Chinese doctor, Enver Tohti, recalled to a panel of experts in Ireland on China’s lucrative practice of organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience.

The Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Trade, and Defence listened to evidence presented by organ harvesting experts, including David Matas and Ethan Gutmann, who have both been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for their investigative work in China.

The panel listed a series of recommendations at the committee, including urging the government to ban ‘organ tourism’—a hugely profitable business predominantly abused by China, where citizens travel overseas to receive an organ transplant.

The main body of victims of these organ transplants is from practitioners of 法輪功—a peaceful, traditional meditation practice whose main tenets are truthfulness, 同情, そして、寛容. The Chinese Communist party began a bloody persecution of its practitioners in 1999 that continues to this day.

Hundreds of thousands of practitioners are in the vast network of labor camps across China at any one time and are highly vulnerable to being put on lists for organ extraction.

Organ tourism is already banned in Israel, 台湾, Italy, and Spain. Gutmann said these countries did so out of a sense of “integrity, a highly-developed sense of tragedy, a historical wisdom to know that the big players, [such as] アメリカ. the U.K., may not interfere in a world tragedy.”

Gutmann went on to say that this is a critical moment in a critical time, and now is the time to act.

博士. Tohti said he performed an organ harvesting operation in the 1990s and thought he was doing his duty to “eliminate the enemy of the state.”

“Every time I give this account it seems like a confession," 彼は言った, before talking to the committee.

He describes how in Chinese society, under communist rule you become a complacent slave, a “fully-programmed member of society, ready to fulfill the task ahead without asking questions.”

に 1995, he said two chief surgeons asked him to prepare a team for “the largest possible surgery” for the next morning.

Tohti and his team were brought outside the hospital and told to wait for gunshots.

“After gunshots were heard, we rushed in. An armed officer directed us to the far-right corner, where I can see a civilian-clothed man lying on the ground with a single bullet wound to his right chest,” Tohti said.

Then he said chief surgeons ordered and guided him to extract the liver and two kidneys. “The man was alive," 彼は言った. The wounded man tried to resist but was too weak.

After signing up for organ transplants outside China, wait times are months to years, depending on the type of organ. But what experts have found is that if the organ was bought in China, a fresh organ can be delivered within days or weeks.

One of the driving factors pushing this organ tourism trade is the high demand for organs.

Tohti described the callous nature of the organ trade in China, referencing terms used on Chinese transplant websites such as “unlimited supply” and “predate for your heart transplantation.”

“It is not acceptable that a normal ‘by-one-get-one-free’ shopping pattern can be seen in organ transplantation," 彼は言った.

Tohti also mentioned recent reports of free national health check-ups in the Xinjiang region for “improving the quality of life of Uyghurs.”

“We suspect that the CCP is building a national database for organ trade," 彼は言った. Uyghurs are a muslim ethnic minority also targeted for persecution by the CCP and have reportedly also been targeted for organ harvesting.

Gutmann and Matas found that in China there are between “60,000 transplants to 100,000 transplants per year” in a nearly 700-page report they published last year in June.


Falun Gong practitioners raise awareness about organ harvesting and other human rights crimes in China, with residents and tourists in Santa Monica, カリフォルニア州。, 7月に 17. (Xu Touhui/Epoch Times)Falun Gong practitioners raise awareness about organ harvesting and other human rights crimes in China, with residents and tourists in Santa Monica, カリフォルニア州。, 7月に 17. (Xu Touhui/Epoch Times)

NEW YORKA petition that has garnered nearly 6,000 signatures in just 2 days calls for President Donald Trump to help end the practice of forced organ harvesting in China.

Trump had his first meeting with Chinese president Xi Jinping on Thursday, but they are expected to get into more deeper discussions on Friday at the summit.

The White House petition created on April. 5, urges Trump to ask Xi Jinping to end the forced organ harvesting against Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience in China.

The forced organ harvesting is part of a wider persecution which began in 1999 by then Communist leader Jiang Zemin and is still happening today against Falun Gong, a peaceful, spiritual practice.

Hundreds of thousands practitioners in detention are vulnerable to becoming victims of forced, live organ harvesting, one of the most atrocious and inhumane practices today, according to researchers.

The Chinese Regime is estimated to have performed between 60,000 そして 100,000 transplants each year from 2000 に 2015, the bulk from Falun Gong practitioners, according to a nearly 700-page report published in June last year.

The report authors—David Kilgour, a former Canadian Secretary of State and member of Parliament; human rights lawyer David Matas; and investigative journalist Ethan Gutmann—explain that this is how transplant patients can go to China and get a organ within days or even hours, if they can pay for it. By contrast, patients can be on wait lists for years in other countries.

The ultimate conclusion of the report, said Matas at the National Press Club in Washington on June 22, “is that China has engaged in the mass killing of innocents.”

If the petition on the White House-sponsored site collects 100,000 signatures by May 5, then the White House is obliged to furnish a response. The text of the petition reads:

“Irrefutable evidence shows that former Chinese President, 江沢民, not only started a brutal persecution against Falun Gong in 1999, but also initiated the abominable and deadly forced organ harvesting practice against this peaceful group—a practice that is intolerable in the 21st century. The civilized world must stand up against these atrocities and demand an end to one of the greatest human rights violations of our time.

“Mr. President, AMERICA FIRST signifies core American values. The defense of human rights is one of our greatest virtues and the foundation of our nation. You have a chance to show the world that the United States remains the leader in defending human rights and will not remain silent in the face of these crimes against humanity.”


(L–R) International human rights lawyer David Matas, former justice minister Irwin Cotler, and former secretary of state for Asia-Pacific David Kilgour at the parliamentary international human rights subcommittee hearing in Ottawa on Nov. 3, 2016, where Matas and Kilgour provided a briefing on organ transplantation abuses in China. (大紀元)(L–R) International human rights lawyer David Matas, former justice minister Irwin Cotler, and former secretary of state for Asia-Pacific David Kilgour at the parliamentary international human rights subcommittee hearing in Ottawa on Nov. 3, 2016, where Matas and Kilgour provided a briefing on organ transplantation abuses in China. (大紀元)

OTTAWA—Two investigators who have spent 10 years researching evidence of forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience in China told Parliament’s human right subcommittee that the practice of killing for profit-driven transplants continues unabated in China today.

International human rights lawyer David Matas and former Crown attorney and cabinet minister David Kilgour presented the findings of their latest 報告する, released in June, at a House of Commons hearing on Nov. 3.

Based on an analysis of over 700 organ transplantation centres in China, the report indicated that Chinese hospitals have performed an estimated 60,000 に 100,000 organ transplants a year since the year 2000, and that most of the organs were sourced from innocents—Uyghurs, チベット人, House Christians, with Falun Gong practitioners being the primary source.

Matas told the committee that the mass vilification and detention of Falun Gong practitioners, combined with a long-standing practice of sourcing organs from death-row prisoners and hospitals’ need for funding, led to the mass killing of Falun Gong adherents for their organs.

“Falun Gong practitioners became a ready, inexhaustible source of organs which can be sold to transplant tourists at exorbitant prices,” Matas said.

Hospitals with transplant centres, the report revealed, indicate that organ transplants are their largest source of revenue. Kilgour told the committee the crimes currently being committed in China involve the coordination of many actors.

“Organ pillaging in China is a crime in which the Communist Party, 国家機関, the health system, 病院, and the transplant profession are all complicit,” said Kilgour.

China analyst and investigative journalist Ethan Gutmann co-authored the 600-page report with Matas and Kilgour. Gutmann was not present for the hearing.

Matas and Kilgour have described this organ seizure as “the kernel at the centre of human rights violations in China,” where doctors—using skills meant to heal—kill helpless prisoners of conscience by extracting their vital organs such as kidneys, livers, and hearts to supply a gruesome and lucrative global trade.

‘We are very clear on this issue’

“We are hearing very carefully these numbers and I think it’s alarming, I think it’s appalling,” NDP MP Cheryl Hardcastle, one of the two vice-chairs of the subcommittee, told reporters after the hearing.

The subcommittee, long a bastion of cross-party cooperation, adopted a motion in December 2014 condemning the forced organ harvesting in China and calling for an immediate end to it, and in March 2015 amended the motion to name Falun Gong and Uyghurs as two of the groups targeted.

The Nov. 3 hearing was the first that the current subcommittee has held on this issue since the Liberal government took power a year ago.

“I don’t think there is any disagreement with the previous position which the subcommittee has taken. We are very clear on this issue,” said Conservative MP and subcommittee member David Anderson.

アメリカ. House of Representatives unanimously passed a resolution in June condemning the state-sanctioned organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience in China and calling for an immediate end to the practice. H.Res.343 also demanded an immediate end to the 17-year campaign of persecution against Falun Gong.

The European Parliament passed a similar resolution in 2013.

Calls for Legislation, International Action

Former justice minister Irwin Cotler, who attended the hearing, pointed to the severity of the situation and the fact that the perpetrators continue to commit the atrocity at will.

“The things that stand out—[ノー. 1], this is a state practice in China; ノー. 2, that it is comprehensive and pervasive; ノー. 3, that it targets innocents, particularly the Falun Gong; ノー. 4, it continues to operate under a culture of impunity,” Cotler said.

“I think it is time for governmental legislation. I think there is all-party support for it. Now is the time to move on it,” added Cotler, echoing one of the recommendations from the Kilgour-Matas-Gutmann report.

“I was interested in multilateral action and what Canada perhaps can do in the international community with allies,” said Liberal MP Michael Levitt, chair of the subcommittee, echoing another recommendation from the report.

The report authors urged governments around the world not to allow their citizens to go to China for organs until China has allowed a full investigation. これまでのところ, Spain, Israel, and Taiwan have passed legislation making it illegal for their citizens to get organ transplants in China.

The authors also want organ transplant tourism to China to be openly monitored rather than shielded by medical confidentiality. And they are hoping that the global intergovernmental community will conduct an independent investigation into organ transplant abuse in China.


Torsten Trey, the executive director of Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, speaks at an event in Taipei on Feb. 27, 2013. (Chen Pochou/Epoch Times)Torsten Trey, the executive director of Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, speaks at an event in Taipei on Feb. 27, 2013. (Chen Pochou/Epoch Times)

Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, a nongovernmental coalition of medical professionals, has declared the date of Oct. 1 the “International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting.” This year is the inaugural occasion, and to mark it the group has called on the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to take action on the abuse.

The concerns of DAFOH, as the organization is often known, focus primarily on what they describe as the killing of prisoners of conscience in China for organs—the practice is believed by researchers to primarily target practitioners of Falun Gong, a spiritual discipline that has been marked for elimination since 1999, as well as other ethnic or religious communities, including Tibetans, ウイグル, and possibly some “house church” Christians.

Those concerned with the issue are enjoined by DAFOH to download their petition and send it to both DAFOH and the email address of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. The petition expresses “alarm… [に] the mass of evidence of forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience in China.”

It calls on the High Commissioner, currently Prince Zeid bin Ra’ad of Jordan, to call upon China to cease forced organ harvesting, “initiate further objective investigations that lead to the prosecution of the perpetrators involved in this crime against humanity,” and also call upon the cessation of the persecution of Falun Gong.

法輪功, a set of five slow-motion exercises and moral teachings centered on the principles of truthfulness, 同情, そして、寛容, gained significant popularity in China during the 1990s, before it befell the wrath of the leader at the time, 江沢民.

According to the most recent research by the investigators David Kilgour, デビッド・マタス, and Ethan Gutmann, between 60,000 そして 100,000 organ transplants have been conducted per year in China since around the year 2000 — just six months after the persecution of Falun Gong started. During this period, China claimed that almost the sole source of its organs were death row prisoners — even as the number of death row executees fell, year by year.

Given the enormous gap between the number of transplants and judicial executions, しかしながら, (researchers say the latter number is only in the thousands per year), researchers have explored alternate organ sources, and concluded that practitioners of Falun Gong are targeted. The evidence supporting this includes surreptitiously recorded telephone calls with doctors who say they have healthy organs from Falun Gong, multiple independent reports of blood-testing in custody, overlap between personnel engaged in the anti-Falun Gong campaign and organ transplantation, and a range of other indicators.

DAFOH highlights on its website a number of statements of international support, including from Japan and the United States.

Hiroshi Yamada, Member of the House of Councillors in the Japanese Diet, is quoted saying: “I sincerely express my condolence to those who were victims of the forced organ harvesting. We will take an action from Japan so that this Holocaust, which challenges the sublime spirit of medicine, will be eliminated as soon as possible through strong solidarity of people with conscience in the whole world.”

A number of U.S. federal and state elected representatives also provided comments on the occasion. “Dear Members of the United Nations Human Rights Commission,” writes State Rep. Michael F. Curtin of Ohio. “For many years, I have been deeply troubled by the mounting evidence of forced organ harvesting in China and elsewhere in the world.

The U.N. Human Rights Commission has a moral duty to do everything in its power to bring an end to this outrageous scourge, an affront to civilization and an affront to humanity itself.”

Congressman Michael G. Fitzpatrick, a Republican from Pennsylvania, entered the commemoration into the House of Representatives record with a statement on Sept. 30. “This practice is another form of evil in our time and the United Nations will be further alerted to this crime against humanity, as are we," 彼は言った.

Incidentally, or not, the date of Oct. 1 contains additional significance: It is on this date in 1949 that Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China.


黄Jiefu, the spokesperson on Chinese transplantation issues, dodges reporters at The Transplantation Society’s recent biennial conference in Hong Kong on Aug. 19. (Yu Kong/Epoch Times)黄Jiefu, the spokesperson on Chinese transplantation issues, dodges reporters at The Transplantation Society’s recent biennial conference in Hong Kong on Aug. 19. (Yu Kong/Epoch Times)

China’s organ transplantation authorities may be taking a leaf from the public relations playbook of Republican presidential candidate Donald J. トランプ: If you make a stumble, just pretend like nothing happened.

This, at least, would be a potential explanation for the silent substitution of the 491st question in the 500 “Frequently Asked Questions” on the website of China’s Organ Transplantation Development Foundation, a state-linked agency promoting voluntary donation.

In early August, the question asked was: “Can prisoners in jail apply to donate their organs after death?」

The answer: “As long as they meet the basic requirements of organ donation, the organ function is normal, they are willing, and there is no compensation, prisoners can all the same donate organs.”

The existence of the question and answer was, in the first place, a bizarre and public contradiction of the officially stated policy of the Chinese authorities on organ transplant reform.

China’s organ transplantation spokesperson, 黄Jiefu, has since December 2014 been promising that no more organs would be sourced from death row prisoners.

It remained unclear just why a question on China’s own semi-official website, belonging to the foundation run by Huang, would flatly contest his own public promises.

But it seems the answer to that question will now remain a mystery. Sometime later in August, after Epoch Times brought the aberrant Q-and-A to the attention of several Chinese and Western doctors, it was replaced.

“Will information about donations be widely reported by the media?” the new one asked. (ノー, is the answer.)

A screengrab from an archived version of the website of the China Organ Transplantation Development Foundation, with the replaced question — affirming the use of prisoner organs — highlighted. (Screenshot/Epoch Times)

Yet the question of whether or not death row prisoners are still being used as an organ source remains unanswered. 中国, after all, has passed no new law banning the use of organs from prisoners, and nor have they rescinded the 1984 regulations that first gave the legal opening for their use.

An email to the foundation requesting comment was not immediately returned.

The failure to make these promised changes has led the international transplantation community to sour on endorsing China’s system, and led to public rebukes from the former head of The Transplantation Society at a major conference in Hong Kong last month.

その間に, attention continues to focus on whether the primary source of organs all along has not been death row prisoners, as China claims, but instead extrajudicially executed prisoners of conscience—primarily practitioners of Falun Gong, a spiritual discipline that has been targeted for elimination since 1999.

アメリカ. 衆議院 passed a resolution condemning this practice in June, documentaries on the subject are winning prestigious awards, and the issue has been prominently raised in a number of recent reports in The New York Times.

On that topic, Chinese authorities have provided even less explanation than the deleted question. “Ridiculous!” was all Huang Jiefu, a former vice health minister, could muster at the recent Hong Kong conference, declining to address hundreds of pages of detailed evidence that researchers say documents the practice.


The Tianjin First Central Hospital. (mapio.net)The Tianjin First Central Hospital. (mapio.net)

A foreign patient receives a life-extending organ transplant in a Chinese hospital. Feeling grateful, he asks a hospital staff who the donor was so that he may give thanks and repayment.

But no one at the hospital—not even the transplant doctor—knows the donor’s identity.

Before his flight home, the patient is issued an official transplantation document. He finally learns the identity of his life-giver: A 30-year-old male death row convict. Coincidentally, all the other transplant patients received organs from healthy, 30-year-old executed prisoners. Only their names differed.

A correspondent who identified him or herself as having worked at the Tianjin First Central Hospital in the mid-2000s recently recounted the above episode and other oddities in a personal statement provided to New Tang Dynasty Television.

Below is a translation of the statement, edited for brevity and clarity.


I’m currently living in mainland China. Once, I worked at the organ transplant center in Tianjin First Central Hospital. What I’ve learned could perhaps serve as a rare warning to those who persist in persecuting Falun Gong. It’s also a cautionary tale for my fellow countrymen with a conscience.

The Communist Party Sells Human Organs

When China was welcoming large numbers of foreign organ transplant patients, I stepped into Tianjin First Central Hospital’s organ transplant center on the seventh floor. I managed to get a job at the transplant center through a recommendation.

Then, Tianjin First Central Hospital was also known as the Orient Organ Transplant Center because it handled large volumes of organ transplant patients, and was located in China. Today, this hospital is still the largest center in Asia.

The world of organ brokers is a black box — but from my contact with that world, I’ve figured out that there are a number of channels for people to learn about or get organs.

One channel is through middlemen. A well-known South Korean doctor with one of the biggest hospitals in South Korea would introduce his patients to a middleman. This middleman would then refer these patients to the Tianjin hospital.

There is no diplomatic arrangement for organ transplantation between China and South Korea. Rather, intermediaries belonging to Mafia-like syndicates cut transplant deals.

Many of the foreign transplant patients came to China looking for a liver or kidney. The bulk of these foreigners were South Koreans, while the rest came from Japan or Taiwan.

Foreign doctors are another channel for organ transplants. Because there was a shortage of transplant doctors in China, an unnamed hospital hired a South Korean doctor on high wages. This South Korean doctor told me that his peers in China held two household registration (hukou) credentials—one South Korean, and one Chinese—and that he is a legal Chinese citizen. I don’t know how much Chinese blood these dual-national South Korean doctors have on their hands.

A third channel is Chinese commercials. These ads feature famous Chinese celebrities, and serve to deceive and entice potential patients. A South Korean patient I keep in touch said that his countrymen flocked to China after watching an organ transplant advertisement starring Chinese actor Fu Biao.

On Aug. 26, 2004, Fu Biao checked into Beijing’s 309 Hospital for a check-up. The following day, he was diagnosed with liver cancer. On Sept. 2, Fu received a liver transplant at the General Hospital of the People’s Armed Police in Beijing.

The chief surgeon operating on Fu was Dr. Shen Zhongyang, a man hailed by the Chinese media as China’s “top scalpel.” Dr. Shen had headed the organ transplant research institute at the People’s Armed Police Hospital and the Orient Organ Transplant Center in Tianjin First Central Hospital.

In April 2005, Fu suffered a cancer relapse. He had a second liver transplant surgery on April 28, and was once again operated on by Dr. Shen, though this time at the Orient Organ Transplant Center.

On Aug. 30, しかしながら, Fu Biao passed away.

The following March, the organ harvesting of still-living Falun Gong practitioners in the district of Sujiatun in Shenyang City was exposed. The years between 2002 に 2005 were said to be the peak period of former Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin’s organ harvesting operation. Later, an article revealed that Dr. Shen Zhongyang conducted liver transplant experiments using live subjects, many of whom “died under experimentation.”

Afterwards, a person provided a tip on the sourcing of actor Fu Biao’s donated livers—two Falun Gong practitioners from Shandong. 博士. Shen had killed the practitioners for their organs.

Fu might have only lived a year more after his two liver transplants, his organ transplant advertisements continue to be broadcast in South Korea. Thus, South Koreans still visited China for surgery in 2006 because they didn’t know that Fu Biao was already dead.

Fu only lived a year more after his two liver transplants. But while he passed away on Aug. 30, 2005, Koreans were still going to China for surgery in 2006 because Fu’s organ transplant advertisements continue to be broadcast; unlike the Chinese, the Koreans didn’t know that Fu had died.

Those in need of a liver transplant around the world had fallen victim to the Chinese Communist Party’s enormous deception.

China Has the World’s Largest Human Organ Bank

A South Korean patient once told me that Chinese doctors learned the organ transplantation techniques from the technically superior Japanese doctors.

When I was at the Tianjin organ transplant center, the hospital staff were familiar with a professor Zheng, a specialist in liver transplants, and a professor Song, a kidney transplant specialist. They were considered the best transplant surgeons in their respective fields, and both had learned their craft in Japan. The two professors didn’t appear to be working for just one hospital—one day they’d be performing surgery in China, and the next day they’d head off to Japan or some place else.

At the Tianjin First Central Hospital, doctors perform transplant surgery in groups of three. I’m not sure how many surgery groups there are. These doctors work night after night, while hospital translators wait with the relatives of patients in the hallways. A liver transplant can take up to 10 hours.

Why did foreigners, particularly South Koreans and Japanese, journey to China for organ transplants, I asked professor Zheng and professor Song. They told me that while they had superior transplantation skills, they weren’t able to find organ donors within a very short time frame in the aforementioned Asian countries. 例えば, the waiting time for an organ in Japan or South Korea could be as long as 10 年, or five to six years at the earliest. Some patients pass away while waiting for an organ because acquiring one isn’t easy.

The professors added that everyone in their medical teams and their patients know about the organ waiting time. So many foreign patients end up traveling to China because there appears to be many Chinese organ donors.

Shocked and Distressed Patients

Most of the patients I met at Tianjin First Central Hospital were in need of either a liver or a kidney. Unless the patient suffered an organ rejection, they would be discharged after a short residency period. Under normal circumstances, patients would receive an organ in two days, while some waited anywhere from 10 days to half a month—patients said that this was too fast.

A South Korean patient had the longest waiting time of those I’d met—a whole month—and happened to be at the Tianjin transplant center when the Chinese Communist Party’s live organ harvesting scandal was being exposed.

After a spending a month in Tianjin, the hospital told the patient to travel to the city of Wuhan in central China for a transplant, and we immediately flew over. I didn’t know that an organ transplant network actually existed.

The surgery in Wuhan was very successful, and the patient and his family were very satisfied with the result. Before they returned to South Korea, the patient and his wife—a person of faith—asked who the donor was. The liver transplant had cost him a sum (around three hundred thousand to five hundred thousand yuan), the patient said, but it was the donor who allowed him to regain his health and extend his life.

“I want to know who donated the liver so I can thank the person’s family and give them money or whatever they need; I’m truly very grateful,” the patient said.

At the time, there was no way for the hospital staff to know where the organs came from. さらに, we were warned before being hired that we shouldn’t go sniffing around or indulge in loose talk with patients.

But I wanted to fulfil the South Korean patient’s last request before he left for home.

Of course, the patient didn’t know that we were prohibited from snooping around, and I shouldn’t have been asking questions, but I spoke to the patient’s transplant doctor anyway.

The doctor said: “You’re asking about the donor? Even we don’t even know who the donor is, and there’s no way to find out. Nobody can tell you anything, and no records exist.”

I relayed the doctor’s reply to the patient and his family, and they were very taken aback.

The patient said that international laws regulate the transfer of organs. By these laws, the organ donor and his family are required to sign organ transplantation documents. Without proper documentation, transplant doctors are liable for punishment. In South Korea, everyone knew who their organ donor was because the information has to be made public by law.

Back then, we hospital staff didn’t know anything about the international laws governing organ transplantation. The South Korean patient explained that without these transplantation laws, people could be killed en masse by criminals seeking to profit from their organs. (Then, an organ could be sold for about 300,000 yuan to 700,000 yuan.)

Before leaving the hospital, the South Korean patient said that the hospital needed to give them an official document that indicated that he just had surgery and the organ that he had received, as well as the donor’s personal information and signature. Without this document, the patient wouldn’t be able to board a plane.

I escorted the patient and his family to an airport. They and other organ transplant patients were made to board a special double-decker aircraft instead of a commercial plane. Finally, the organ transplant patients were issued transplantation documents which stated that they had received their organ from a 30-year-old male death row inmate. Only the names of the executed prisoner differed.

Everything was made up.

Post-transplantation Oddities

Organ transplantation is not for everyone. Some patients meet with organ rejection. Others die in surgery. And a few react very adversely after receiving the organ.

A male patient was perfectly normal before checking into Tianjin First Central Hospital. After the organ transplant surgery, しかしながら, this patient went insane—he started running around the ward naked, jumping and screaming as he went along.

There was a female patient who suddenly grew a beard after surgery. Her voice became deep and hoarse, and she started to behave like a man.

The examples I listed above are definitely not one-off incidents. During my stint at Tianjin First Central Hospital, patients behaved abnormally from time to time. Doctors told concerned family members that their loved one had developed an adverse reaction to the transplant medication.

At the time, I wasn’t aware that the organs these foreigners had spent large sums of money to purchase came from Falun Gong practitioners. Many of us were too naive, and didn’t imagine that those blinded by money had in fact been brainwashed by the Chinese Communist Party…

One after the other, angels clad in white transformed into murderous devils. Knowing that such things cannot be allowed to continue, I quit my job at Tianjin First Central Hospital.

Afterwards, I obtained information about the live organ harvesting Falun Gong practitioners through various channels. I did what I had to do, and exposed the truth to the world so that those with a conscience can free themselves from the devil’s grip.

Recently, the United States House of Representatives unanimously passed H.Res.343, a piece of legislation calling on the Chinese regime to immediately cease the harvesting and trafficking of organs obtained from Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience.

For the past 17 年, Falun Gong practitioners—followers of truthfulness, compassion and tolerance—have been subjected to hundreds of inhumane torture methods, including the atrocity of organ harvesting. This must be stopped immediately, and shouldn’t be allowed to implicate the rest of humanity.

It is the responsibility of every Chinese person in the mainland and abroad to see that live organ harvesting is ended.

Translation by Frank Fang; editing by Larry Ong.


Xun Li, President Falun Dafa Association of Canada, urges Prime Minister Trudeau to speak with Chinese leaders about ending the persecution of Falun Gong during his upcoming trip to China  on 26 Aug.,Xun Li, President Falun Dafa Association of Canada, urges Prime Minister Trudeau to speak with Chinese leaders about ending the persecution of Falun Gong during his upcoming trip to China  on 26 Aug.,

OTTAWA—Falun Gong practitioners delivered to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s office on Aug. 26 オーバー 120,000 signatures gathered from across Canada calling on him to help end the persecution of their spiritual discipline in China during his official visit to that country from Aug. 30 to Sept. 6.

Later the same morning, they had reason to be hopeful based on a response to a reporter’s question about their cause at a technical briefing that covered Trudeau’s upcoming trip to China.

“The issue of human rights, you can absolutely expect to be raised as part of the prime minister’s trip, and it is part of the ongoing dialog that we expect to have with China,” said one of the prime minister’s office spokespersons chairing the media briefing.

“As it relates specifically to Falun Gong, that is very much part of the [list] of human rights issues that Canada is very concerned about.”

法輪功, also called Falun Dafa, is an ancient Chinese spiritual discipline consisting of moral teachings, meditation, and gentle exercises. The teachings are based on the principles of truthfulness, 同情, そして、寛容.


Former federal cabinet minister David Kilgour, co-author of an investigative report on organ pillaging from non-consenting prisoners of conscience in China, speaks at a press conference in Ottawa on Aug. 26, 2016, appealing to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to urge Chinese leaders to end the persecution of Falun Gong in China. (Pam McLennan/Epoch Times)

Viewing the popularity and the traditional principles of the practice as incompatible with the communist system, the regime under former leader Jiang Zemin banned it in 1999 and continues to arrest and torture its adherents today. Mounting evidence from independent investigations also indicates that adherents have been killed in large numbers for their organs to supply a massive and lucrative state-run organ transplant industry.

Showing broad support from concerned people across Canada, the practitioners delivered 70,000 signed postcards along with petition forms bearing 50,000 signatures to Trudeau. The postcards and petition asked Trudeau to take every opportunity to speak with the Chinese authorities to urge them to stop the persecution of Falun Gong and the forcible seizing of vital organs from Falun Gong prisoners of conscience.

Canada has a very clear role to play to be frank with China about its behaviours.

— Xun Li, Falun Dafa Association of Canada

On the same morning, the Falun Dafa Association of Canada (FDAC) also held a press conference on Parliament Hill just before the technical briefing. FDAC’s president Xun Li asked Trudeau to urge Chinese leader Xi Jinping and the Chinese authorities to end the persecution of Falun Gong and release the hundreds of thousands of incarcerated practitioners—including 12 family members of Canadians—and to help bring former leader Jiang Zemin to justice for initiating and orchestrating the persecution.

“As you recently stated, Canada has a very clear role to play to be frank with China about its behaviours that are concerning for Canadians who want to engage China but to do so while upholding their core values including human rights and fundamental freedoms,「李は言いました.

Seeking Help to Free a Mother and a Father

Hongyan Lu, a Canadian citizen and a Falun Gong adherent, spoke at the press conference about her mother, Chen Huixia, who was arrested on June 3 and has been tortured while detained.

Hongyan Lu speaks at a press conference in Ottawa on Aug. 26, 2016, asking Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to help obtain the release of her mother, Chen Huixia, who was arrested on June 3 in China for practising Falun Gong. (Pam McLennan/Epoch Times)

Lu also described an earlier detainment and the fallout it caused in her family. “My mother was abducted once in 2003 for roughly three months, and was only released after my father bribed the police. After her release, the harassment continued, to the point my father felt forced to divorce my mother. Only after my parents divorced was I able to get a passport and come to Canada.”

She emphasized the severity of the human rights crisis and the need for prompt action.

“This situation is quite urgent. I hope Prime Minister Trudeau will communicate with the Chinese regime urging them to stop forced organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners. Urge them to follow the International Bill of Human Rights, stop the inhuman persecution, and release my mother and all other Falun Gong practitioners,” Lu said. “It’s time to end this evil crime.”

Paul Li is equally concerned about his father, Xiaobo Li. The elder Li was previously detained in the early years of the persecution and spent eight years in jail. His crime was writing articles to counteract the Chinese Communist Party propaganda vilifying Falun Gong. After his re-arrest in 2014, he was sentenced the following year to another eight years of detention for practising Falun Gong.

Falun Gong practitioner Paul Li holds a photo of his father, Li Xiaobo, who was detained for the second time in China in 2014 and sentenced to a second eight years of imprisonment, at a press conference in Ottawa on Aug. 26, 2016. (Pam McLennan/Epoch Times)

The younger Li described how his father quit smoking and became a more tolerant person after taking up the practice of Falun Gong. He also recounted the torture and suffering his father endured in prison.

“I sincerely hope when Prime Minister Trudeau visits China next week, he will raise my father’s case again to the Chinese government, and request [current leader of China] Xi Jinping to unconditionally release my father Xiaobo Li and other Falun Gong practitioners, so that millions of families can reunite and the persecution can end,” Paul Li said.

Organ Pillaging Supplying 60,000 に 100,000 Transplants a Year

Former federal cabinet minister David Kilgour presented details of the recent 報告する titled “Bloody Harvest / The Slaughter: An Update” that he co-authored with Winnipeg-based international human rights lawyer David Matas, そして、米. investigative journalist and China analyst Ethan Gutmann.

Released in June, the report estimates that 60,000 に 100,000 organ transplants have been carried out in China every year since 2000 in approximately 700 hospitals known to perform transplants. While wait times for organs in other countries are measured in years, wait times are in a matter of days or weeks in China.

The report indicates that the main source of the organs has been the large numbers of non-consenting Falun Gong prisoners of conscience. “Freedom House reported in 2015 that Falun Gong practitioners are the largest contingent of prisoners of conscience in China,” said Li in his speech.

Those large estimates of organ transplants add up to over a million Falun Gong deaths over 15 years from 2000 に 2015. その間に, according to the Chinese regime, only approximately 10,000 transplants per year are being done across the country.

“We provide considerable evidence of an industrial-scale, state-directed organ transplantation network, controlled through national policies and funding, and implicating both the military and civilian healthcare systems,” states a note supplied by Kilgour which lists information from the update report as well as suggestions on what legislators and governments can do, such as making the purchase of trafficked organs illegal for Canadians.

For the Falun Gong prisoners of conscience “donors,” “Their vital organs, including kidneys, livers, corneas, and hearts, were seized involuntarily for sale at high prices, sometimes to foreigners, who normally face long waits for voluntary donations of such organs in their home countries,” according to Kilgour’s note.

This massive organ pillaging could only happen because it is “a crime in which the Communist Party, 国家機関, the health system, 病院, and the transplant professions are all complicit.”

Urging PM to Take Action

“What we’re saying is we can’t have normal relations with a government killing their own citizens by the tens of thousands,” Kilgour said, urging the Canadian government to “stand solidly” with the people of China.

Li called on Trudeau to take a principled stand on human rights, including the Falun Gong issue in China.

“Your China trip is another opportunity to give moral support and encouragement to the Chinese citizens yearning for freedom, and to leave a legacy of courageous, principled action Canadians can be proud of,「李は言いました.

“Your upright stance against injustice and oppression will make a difference.”


博士. Ming Yingzi, a controversial Chinese transplant doctor is shown in the center performing a surgery in an undated photograph. (Third Xiangya Hospital)博士. Ming Yingzi, a controversial Chinese transplant doctor is shown in the center performing a surgery in an undated photograph. (Third Xiangya Hospital)

HONG KONG—Two key leaders in international organ transplantation have for several years been involved in an undisclosed, cooperative relationship with Chinese transplantation centers, raising questions about whether the two Australian doctors have failed to make public a potential conflict of interest, according to recently uncovered documents.

博士. Jeremy Chapman and Dr. Philip O’Connell, both based at Westmead Hospital in Sydney, オーストラリア, are respectively the former (2008-2010) and current (2014-present) presidents of The Transplantation Society (TTS), the international body representing the profession.

Their close research relationships in China occurred while the two played decisive roles in determining how the international transplantation community would respond to disturbing evidence that Chinese hospitals have been engaged in the large-scale killing of prisoners of conscience, whose organs are harvested for profit, according to independent researchers.

(L) 博士. Philip O'Connell who is the current president of The Transplantation Society. (University of Sydney) (R)

(L) 博士. Philip O’Connell who is the current president of The Transplantation Society. (University of Sydney) (R) 博士. Jeremy Chapman, former president of The Transplantation Society. (Minghui.org)

Chapman is also the chair of the scientific program for TTS’s major biennial conference, held this year in Hong Kong from Aug. 18. The program has been criticized for including numerous doctors with histories of abusive practice in China, which critics say whitewashes China’s record.

Undisclosed Partnership

から 2005, Westmead Hospital, a teaching hospital of Sydney Medical School, has had a relationship with The Third Xiangya Hospital, affiliated with Central South University in Changsha, Hunan, in central China. The earliest contact involved a visiting professorship for a key Westmead researcher; it continued に 2008 with a joint declaration in research standards. に 2012, Chapman and O’Connell attended a forum at The Second Xiangya Hospital, affiliated with the same Chinese university.

In November 2013, after attending a forum promoting China’s transplant system reforms, O’Connell and Chapman signed a “letter of intent” between Westmead and The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, for both parties to “regularly conduct academic exchange conferences, engage in personnel exchange visits, and undertake advanced study and remote education in medical treatment, surgical demonstrations, and medical consultation,” according to a report on the hospital’s website.

博士. Philip O’Connell (L), 博士. Jeremy Chapman (C) and hospital president Dr. Chen Fangping (R) signing a letter of intent at The Third Xiangya Hospital in Changsha, China in November 2013. (The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University)

に 2014, the relationship got closer, with O’Connell, then president of TTS, traveling to participate in a xenotransplantation conference on Oct. 16, followed by a delegation of 14 specialists from The Third Xiangya Hospital visiting Westmead from Oct. 27 に 30. Xenotransplantation refers to transplanting cells or tissues between different species, typically from animals to humans.

A meeting at Westmead included Chapman and Chen Fangping, president of Third Xiangya, signing another pact, this time a “supplementary agreement” to the 2013 letter of intent. It included “selecting a team of nurses and management staff to visit Westmead for advanced study,” and “other content” aimed at “deepening cooperation” between the parties. A photograph of Chapman shaking hands with Chen is highlighted in a report on the hospital website.

博士. Chapman of Westmead and Dr. Chen of The Third Xiangya Hospital shake hands after signing a “supplementary agreement” of cooperation in 2014. (The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University)

Among those who received the guests was a fellow Chinese researcher, 博士. Shounan Yi, whose presence provides a clue to the substance of the relationship between the two institutions.


から 2004, research on xenotransplantation has been restricted in Australia by a moratorium.

But Yi, a senior research fellow at Westmead and a protege of O’Connell, has been able by virtue of the relationship with Third Xiangya to perform research that is restricted in Australia.

The first contact between Yi Shounan and Third Xiangya took place in May 2005, when Yi took a position as a visiting professor there, によります history of the hospital (he held the same post again in 2012). Wayne Hawthorne, a professor at Westmead, joined him a month later for three days of meetings.

Yi continued to research and publish on xenotransplantation over the years, including a number of joint publications with O’Connell and Hawthorne, as well as with Prof. Wang Wei, the resident xenotransplantation expert at Third Xiangya.

に 2011, during a stint there, Yi published research that it appears could not have been performed at the time in Australia due to ethics rules: the injection of pig islet cells into 22 patients with diabetes, a potentially lucrative treatment. The experimental procedure involves placing in the host, islets from the pancreas of pig fetuses, which then produce insulin and regulate blood glucose.

“This is a gigantic market,” wrote Sina Finance, a major Chinese web portal, で May 2016 story. “Even if there were 10,000 cases a year, that would mean a billion RMB in income.”

Yi is quoted in the article, commenting on recent research: “This makes us see hope for a breakthrough in industrialization of xenotransplantation in China.”

But in Yi’s impressive list of publications, this particular study is nowhere to be found. (Yi also holds a 2010 patent, with Wang Wei of Xiangya, on a related medical technique.) Yi did not immediately respond to an email enquiring as to the reason for the absence.

The Westmead-Xiangya connection is not noted in any of O’Connell’s publications on xenotransplantation either. Chapman has published four papers on transplantation issues in China (1, 2, 3, 4), some of which are broadly supportive of the official views of reform there, and the relationship with Xiangya is not disclosed.

Chapman and O’Connell did not immediately respond to an email with a series of questions about the connections between Westmead and Third Xiangya.

Conflict of Interest Suspicions

The coincidence of the failure to disclose these relationships, involving potentially profitable research that could not be done in Australia, and the apathetic, sometimes hostile stance of TTS figures to evidence of widespread transplant abuse in China, has troubled observers.

The complex web of relationships, joint research projects, and grip-n-grins between Westmead and Xiangya Third doctors was pieced together by Arne Schwarz, an independent researcher based in Germany who provided the material in a dossier to a number of journalists.

Schwarz is responsible for the research behind pharmaceutical company Roche receiving a “Hall of Shame” award in 2010 for its clinical trials in China, and has followed transplant abuse in China for many years.

Arne Schwarz, an independent researcher of organ trafficking, attends a conference in Germany in September 2012. Schwarz uncovered the undisclosed evidence of cooperation between leading surgeons and a Chinese hospital. (Jason Wang/The Epoch Times)

He said that he began looking into potential conflicts of interest involving TTS leadership this June.

His curiosity was piqued by a dismissive remark made by Chapman following the publication of a nearly 700-page report on organ transplant abuse in China by independent researchers. The formidable report contained over 2,000 footnotes, オーバー 90 パーセント traceable back to hospital websites in China, and marshaled evidence indicating that the country’s transplant system operates at a scale far larger than previously understood.

The report now stands as the single largest collection of information on China’s transplant industry. Its researchers—David Kilgour, デビッド・マタス, and Ethan Gutmann—concluded that somewhere between 60,000 そして 100,000 transplants are likely conducted in China annually; they believe that most of these organs come from practitioners of Falun Gong, a persecuted spiritual practice.

Chapman, しかしながら, in an interview with The Globe and Mail, dismissed the sources in the report as “all Falun Gong.”

The Third Xiangya Hospital, affiliated with Central South University, in Changsha, Hunan Province. (hns5j.com)

When he read Chapman’s quote, “I couldn’t believe my eyes,” Schwarz said. He then became curious as to whether there was more than met the eye to Chapman’s relationship with China. So he began searching, and discovered the previously unknown set of relationships and interests.

The material was only discoverable through targeted Chinese-language queries; none of it had been reported previously in English, and it is not mentioned on Westmead’s website.

A number of Chapman’s colleagues were previously unaware of, and surprised by, the information. “That cooperation was never disclosed to The Transplantation Society’s Ethics Committee,” said Dr. Jacob Lavee, an outgoing member of the committee who is critical of what he considers the Society’s lax stance toward transplant abuse in China.

“Present and past presidents of The Transplantation Society have significant influence on how the international transplantation community deals with the unethical transplantation system in China,” Schwarz wrote in an email.

(L-R) デビッド・マタス, デビッド・キルガー, and Ethan Gutmann, researchers of organ transplantation abuse in China, speak about their recent report in Ottawa, カナダ, in June 2016. (Jonathan Ren/NTD Television)

彼が追加した: “If their judgement of the Chinese transplant practices is biased by vested interests in China, it can’t be trusted any longer.”

As Schwarz kept tugging on the ball of yarn, he found more and more that seemed questionable: the undisclosed meetings, promises of cooperation, joint research projects, and patents in potentially lucrative clinical procedures.

“Wow,” he wrote, recalling his thinking. “I understood why Chapman was so furious about the Kilgour-Matas-Gutmann report.”

In some ways, しかしながら, xenotransplantation research is only a sideshow to some of the more serious goings-on at Third Xiangya.

7 Transplants in a Day

Changsha is a relatively underdeveloped city in China, but it boasts three top grade hospitals—Xiangya, Second Xiangya, and Third Xiangya—all of them affiliated with Central South University.

Third Xiangya is a highly industrious transplant center.

In 2001—a year of “rapid development” in China’s organ transplant industry, according to Third Xiangya’s website—authorities invested 100 million RMB (約 $15 百万) in constructing a 150-bed transplant center there, which quickly became the best in the province. Statistics show that the number of death row prisoners—the official source for transplantation organs—was in a decline while all this investment and development took place, indicating that organ sources should have been less, not more, abundant.

Seven organs transplants at Third Xiangya Hospital on a special day when Huang Jiefu showed up for an anniversary ceremony!

— Arne Schwarz, independendent transplant researcher

Third Xiangya quickly became a “national research base” for transplant technology and performs large numbers of solid organ transplants (kidney, heart, lung, 肝, intestines), according to its website. According to research by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, the facility once performed seven transplants in a single day, when Huang Jiefu, 中国のトップ移植公式, was visiting. This information has since been purged from the hospital’s website.

“Seven organs transplants at Third Xiangya Hospital on a special day when Huang Jiefu showed up for an anniversary ceremony!” an incredulous Schwarz declared. “How is this possible without a bank of living donors?」

Ye Qifa, the deputy director of Third Xiangya and the executive director of China’s national organ procurement network, will be presenting at TTS’s Congress in Hong Kong on Aug. 18.

Alongside this, there are particular doctors at Xiangya who have engaged in questionable conduct, according to records online.

A Dubious Record

Perhaps the most prominent doctor is 博士. Ming Yingzi, a transplant surgeon at Third Xiangya who is hailed as a rising star in the transplant profession by Chinese reports. According to a highly flattering 2014 biography of her on the hospital’s website, Ming’s team has performed around 1,000 solid organ transplants over the years. She “carries on her back a heavy icebox, fetching organs from everywhere,” the article says.

Given the realities of organ transplantation in China, almost all of these organs likely came from prisoners of conscience, who were killed for on-demand transplantation surgery.

When she visited Taiwan in 2009, a large meeting of transplant recipients she had serviced was convened, where she was hailed as a “savior.” She’s personally performed 500 kidney transplants and 200 liver transplants, her profile says.

博士. Ming Yingzi, a controversial Chinese transplant doctor is shown in the center performing a surgery in an undated photograph. (Third Xiangya Hospital)

But she is also the subject of a lengthy prosecution in China for allegedly misappropriating 150,000 元 ($22,000) paid by a patient for a kidney. Her lawyer in court acknowledged that she indeed received the money, that it was for a kidney, and that no receipt was produced, によります local journalist. She says that she then gave the money to either the Red Cross, or a local Organ Procurement Organization.

“She’s been changing her story,” said Jiang Jiasong, the lawyer for the plaintiff, in a telephone interview. “She’s never produced any evidence. … I asked her which organ procurement organization she gave the money to, and she refused to answer.”

It is likely that none of this was clear to O’Connell and Chapman. Ming’s biography on the Xiangya website provides what is almost certainly an apocryphal account of an interaction between the three. It says that when the two Australians were leaving Changsha in 2014, both of them gave her the “thumbs up” and made the remark: “Your achievements are astounding! We hope that you’ll become a leader in China’s new generation of organ transplant doctors!」

Westmead has been quiet about the relationship, brokered by Chapman and O’Connell, between it and Xiangya, and there is no mention of it on its website.

When asked for copies of the agreements between the institutions, and comment on the appropriateness of the relationship, Emma Spillett, senior corporate communications specialist at Westmead, part of the Western Sydney Local Health District, said “Thanks for your enquiry. We will get back to you ASAP.”

Three hours later she wrote back: “Western Sydney Local Health District will not be commenting on this matter.”


The Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre will host The Transplantation Society's 2016 conference, where the claimed reforms to China's organ transplantation system will be given top billing. (Ted Aljibe/AFP/Getty Images)The Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre will host The Transplantation Society's 2016 conference, where the claimed reforms to China's organ transplantation system will be given top billing. (Ted Aljibe/AFP/Getty Images)

In June, a report examining over 700 hundred hospitals in China was published alleging that the Communist Party has been conducting secret industrialized slaughter of prisoners of conscience for their organs. The researchers met with no substantive rebuttal, and key leaders in international transplantation have given a nod to some of its important conclusions.

The response from the global transplantation establishment has, しかしながら, been muted. Top transplantation officials did not express outrage, or make known their concern over claims of transplant medicine being used as a new form of mass murder.

Nor did they submit polite questions to the Chinese authorities, enquiring about the origin of the surfeit of human organs that have fueled the massive, sustained surge of transplants in China since 2000. The report, authored by Ethan Gutmann, デビッド・キルガー, そして、デビッド・マタス, estimates that between 60,000 そして 100,000 transplants per year were performed from 2000-2015, with the most likely source for the organs being prisoners of conscience.

その代わり, when The Transplantation Society (TTS) holds its biennial conference in Hong Kong this August, China will be the star.

In sessions like “The New Era of Organ Transplantation in China” and “Transplantation Reform in China,” Chinese officials will have the opportunity to tell thousands of medical professionals at the industry’s foremost gathering that they have thoroughly reformed their system, basking in renewed global standing and legitimacy without having passed a single new law. And without a single doctor or official held account for what has been described a genocide.

Ethical Questions

But at the conference in August, two troubling issues stand out, say transplantation watchdogs. The first is that clinical research by Chinese doctors may have been based on organs obtained unethically. The second is that top TTS executives will be sharing a dais with the Chinese military doctors and transplant surgeons who are accused of engaging in the mass killing of innocents.

In the most remarkable case, one well-known Chinese doctor leads a bizarre double life: he is a top liver surgeon, but he also serves as a leader of the Communist Party’s agitprop organ dedicated to inciting hatred against Falun Gong, a persecuted spiritual practice that researchers say is heavily targeted for organ harvesting.

Problematic doctors will be at the TTS conference. (tts2016.org)

Problematic doctors will be at the TTS conference. (tts2016.org)

Allegations of organ harvesting from Falun Gong have dogged Chinese authorities for ten years, meeting with varying levels of shock, disbelief, and skepticism in the global public sphere. Now, one of the China’s prominent delegates at an international conference will represent the nexus of these two fields of activity.

On the same panel as Zheng sits Dr. Jeremy Chapman of Sydney, former head of TTS, current editor of the medical journal Transplantation, and long a personal friend to China’s top transplant official. Chapman also serves as the chair of the scientific program for the conference, granting him the task of ensuring that the abstracts from China did not use research based on organs from prisoners.

A review of over 50 presentations from China, conducted by Epoch Times, しかしながら, shows that at least a dozen pose questions about organ sourcing.

Unknown Organ Sources

Many of them do not provide any information about the source organ. 例えば. “Influencing Factors of Fatigue in Liver Transplant Recipients,” presented by Liu Hongxia of the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, provides no information about where the 285 livers came from, or when they were obtained, making it difficult to form a judgement about whether they were acquired ethically.

Wang Changxi has performed 700 kidney transplants in China, the majority during a period when the country had no voluntary donation system. (Hospital files)

Wang Changxi has performed 700 kidney transplants in China, the majority during a period when the country had no voluntary donation system. (Hospital files)

Other studies suffer a similar deficiency. “Pathological analysis of 544 cases of indicated renal allograft biopsies,” and another study on 658 kidney transplants, both presented by Wang Changxi, include kidney transplants performed beginning in 2010. As of 2009, China had only performed a total of 120 voluntary transplants, officials say. It is thus a distinct possibility that many of these transplants were involuntary.

から 2005, Chinese officials have said that the vast majority of organ transplants come from executed prisoners; since 2013, a nationwide voluntary transplant system has existed, though reliable data about its operations is elusive.

Both of those presenters have a problematic history. Liu Hongxia, according to a journal paper she co-authored in 2003, participated in at least 60 kidney transplants from January 1999 until May 2002. It is almost certain that none of these were voluntary, and it is statistically likely that many of them may have come from prisoners of conscience, given that such prisoners are believed to have been the primary source of organs in China since 2000.

The same issues exist for Wang Changxi, who performed over 700 kidney transplants, according to his hospital profile, the vast majority at a time when China had no voluntary donation system. Other presenters or co-authors boast of similarly problematic histories.

There are several other cases of presentations where no year of organ transplant is provided; in some cases, the years in question overlap with a period when China claimed to have a voluntary donation system (post 2013)—though not all are of this sort.

Even after 2013, given the continued use of organs from executed prisoners and prisoners of conscience, it is impossible for outsiders—including international transplant experts—to know for sure which research comes from organs obtained voluntarily, and which from executions.

‘Very Detailed Analysis’

When approached with questions about the abstract selection process, Jeremy Chapman 書きました: “We undertook a very detailed analysis of all submitted papers using a group of highly experienced individuals with detailed knowledge of China transplant programs… Any papers that included any donor/transplants that were potentially from executed prisoners were rejected.”

Upon receiving a spreadsheet highlighting the dozen potentially problematic abstracts, along with questions about how the organ sourcing in them was verified, Chapman made clear that he and his colleagues had put trust in their Chinese counterparts to ensure compliance with ethical norms. Chinese presenters were required to assure the congress “on three occasions in writing” that organs were sourced ethically.

Chapman added: “All submissions in which executed prisoner organs were possibly used have been rejected, as have all submissions where there has been no response to any of our requests for declaration.” He did not respond to a query about how many abstracts were rejected.

The lack of verification has troubled some.

“I have reviewed many scientific abstracts for many meetings over 28 年,” wrote Dr. Maria Fiatarone Singh, a board member of Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, in an email. “The only thing reviewers get is a 250 word abstract and the names of the authors and institutions… nothing could have been verified beyond what is in those 250 words.”

Fiatarone Singh and her colleagues at DAFOH have lodged their discontent with the fact that the congress in Hong Kong, including presenters and other panelists, will be heavy with doctors who have long been involved in what they regard as crimes against humanity.

Doctors Accused of Being Killers

“Despite mounting international concerns, TTS has booked China’s leading transplant expert, 黄Jiefu, as a plenary speaker at the upcoming transplant congress,” DAFOH writes in a recent press release.

“Under his tenure as deputy minister of health, China’s transplant numbers grew exponentially, coinciding with the nationwide outbreak of persecution and detention of prisoners of conscience after 1999, and reports of forced blood testing and medical examinations of detained Falun Gong practitioners targeted for their beliefs,” the group says.

Huang Jiefu himself is implicated in China’s kill-on-demand organ transplant system. According to Chinese media reports he has performed hundreds of liver transplants over the years. に 2005, from a hospital in Xinjiang, he put out an urgent call and obtained two livers within 24 hours, flown to him overnight. Though this required the killing of two people, in the end the livers were not even used.

Chinese Vice Minister of Health Huang Jiefu after a conference in Taipei, 台湾, に 2010. Huang has recently come under scrutiny for his involvement in and knowledge of illicit organ harvesting in China while vice-minister of health. (Bi-Long Song/The Epoch Times)

黄Jiefu, 中国のトップ移植公式, after a conference in Taipei, 台湾, に 2010. Huang recently blamed China’s transplant abuses on the former security boss, ズハウ・ヨンカン. (Song Xianglong/Epoch Times)

One of the most problematic doctors to co-author a paper at the congress is Shen Zhongyang. Shen is the industrious surgeon behind Tianjin First Central Hospital, a transplant facility that has been the subject of significant scrutiny for both its tremendous volume of transplants, and for its boldness in advertising its services to an international audience.

This hospital was the subject of an 8,000-word investigation by Epoch Times in February 2016, which found that its transplant volume could not possibly be accounted for by death row prisoners, and that another organ source must have been relied upon.

Shen is the co-author of a paper that will be presented in Hong Kong about techniques for measuring livers.

But another surgeon who will be at the conference gives even greater pause: 博士. Zheng Shusen.

Zheng Does Double Duty

Zheng has personally performed at least hundreds of liver transplants, and has overseen thousands. From his base at the the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, he co-authored a 2005 paper about the rapid acquisition of livers, called “emergency transplants,” for patients suffering acute liver failure.

In the absence of a voluntary, national matching system as exists in other countries, this can only mean that fresh donors were identified locally and killed within as short a period as 24 hours. Researchers have pointed to such rapid organ acquisitions as key evidence that a pool of live donors is kept on standby, waiting to be harvested.

その間に, Zheng leads a dual life. When not doing emergency liver transplants, he leads anti-Falun Gong indoctrination seminars, as head of the Zhejiang Anti-Cult Association.

Zheng assumed his role as chairman of the Party-run NGO in 2007. それ以来, he has addressed schools and government work units, edited book volumes, and presented awards, all aimed at vilifying Falun Gong, a traditional Chinese spiritual practice that has been persecuted since 1999.

Researchers believe that soon after Falun Gong practitioners were defined as the Party’s number one political enemy, and thus placed outside the protection of the law, they were targeted for organ harvesting—a lucrative activity conducted with impunity by China’s medical-military complex.

Zheng Shusen, a prolific liver surgeon who doubles as an anti-Falun Gong agitprop commissar, will appear at the conference alongside top TTS executives. (WOIPFG)

Zheng Shusen (C), a prolific liver surgeon who doubles as an anti-Falun Gong agitprop commissar, will appear at the conference alongside top TTS executives. (WOIPFG)

Anti-Cult Associations around China have played an instrumental role in the anti-Falun Gong campaign. They perform two tasks, according to records of their activities online. The first is to incite hatred against the practice; the second is to develop the curricula and training sessions for frontline ideological re-education. This refers to the attempt to force Falun Gong practitioners to renounce their beliefs and pledge allegiance to the regime. Victims describe it as a harrowing experience that involves isolation, demands of submission to Party will, and physical torture.

According to records online, Zheng chaired an “anti-cult” cadre training program at the Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power in October 2010. He gave the opening address while seated alongside the head of the Zhejiang 610 Office, the extralegal security agency in charge of imprisoning and torturing Falun Gong.

Discovering this other side of Zheng Shusen’s identity requires Chinese-language research, and a sensitivity to the highly politicized institutional context in which transplantation exists in China. This is an awareness that TTS leaders lack, according to the organization’s critics.

All Prisoners Are Equal

But after TTS officers were apprised of the hidden identities of their Chinese counterparts, no changes to the congress were made.

Zheng Shusen will appear on a panel alongside Jeremy Chapman, current TTS president Philip O’Connell, and the organization’s incoming president, Nancy Ascher. Other panelists include Huang Jiefu, and the prolific military transplant surgeon Shi Bingyi. Zheng will give a speech titled “Liver Transplantation in China in the New Era.”

Falun Gong practitioners meditate on Capitol Hill on July 12, 2014, calling for an end to the persecution in China. (Edward Dye/Epoch Times)

Falun Gong practitioners meditate on Capitol Hill on July 12, 2014, calling for an end to the persecution in China. (Edward Dye/Epoch Times)

Ascher did not respond to a research note emailed to her apprising her of the identity of her co-panelist; Chapman similarly declined to comment. O’Connell, copied by his colleagues in responding emails, also refrained from commenting.

TTS’s ethics guidelines on dealing with Chinese doctors, formulated by the organization’s leadership, have for years aimed to balance two goals: on the one hand, the imperative to uphold their own ethical standards, and the other to “promote dialogue” and “educate” Chinese doctors about “alternatives to the use of organs and tissues from executed prisoners.”

Traditionally, Chinese doctors have been permitted to become TTS members and to give presentations at its congresses—as long as the research itself is clean.

These ethical deliberations, しかしながら, have only addressed doctors who have used organs from death row prisoners.

What if the doctor, like Zheng Shusen, is reasonably suspected of killing innocents for their organs?

According to TTS, it makes no difference — a doctor like Zheng is free to take part in the conference.

中国では, it is legal, although ethically problematic, to take organs from consenting executed prisoners… it is not overtly legal to murder people for their organs.

— Wendy Rogers, Macquarie University

“We wish to highlight that the ethical principles which form the basis of TTS policy regarding the procurement of organs from executed prisoners should be understood as also applicable to the procurement of organs from any person who is not able to provide valid consent–voluntary, informed and specific–hence including prisoners of conscience,” wrote Dr. Beatriz Domínguez-Gil, the chair of the Ethics Committee.

This obliterates the moral gulf between the two, ethicists say.

「中国では, it is legal, although ethically problematic, to take organs from consenting executed prisoners,” wrote Wendy Rogers, a bioethicist at the University of Macquarie in Sydney, in an email. “Even in China, it is not overtly legal to murder people for their organs.”

She added: “Doctors participating in the former might be accused of unethical practice, but doctors in the latter category are criminal murderers. We generally make an ethical distinction between murderers and others. Any ethical theory I can think of would make this distinction.”

博士. Jacob Lavee, who is featured in Hard to Believe, a documentary to be shown at the Hoboken Film Festival on June 4, 2016. (courtesy hardtobelievemovie.com)

博士. Jacob Lavee. (Hard to Believe)


The ethical slope descended by TTS has left some prominent members at a loss. 博士. Jacob Lavee, president of the Israel Transplantation Society, the country’s most prominent heart transplant surgeon, and a member of TTS’s Ethics Committee, will not be flying to Hong Kong.

“I have tried and failed to persuade TTS leadership to refrain from moving the TTS 2016 会議, originally planned to be conducted in Bangkok, to Hong Kong,” he wrote in an email.

Providing China a global platform, while ignoring reports of organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience “is a moral stain on TTS ethical code,” he wrote.

Lavee continued: “The amazing finding of so many ethical doubtful presentations in the congress’ scientific program is just another aspect of the disintegration of the moral fiber of my society. I have therefore announced to my colleagues, I will boycott the Hong Kong meeting and called upon them to follow me.”


担当者. Chris Smith (L) and Rep. Dana Rohrabacher hold a hearing on organ harvesting in China on June 23. (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)担当者. Chris Smith (L) and Rep. Dana Rohrabacher hold a hearing on organ harvesting in China on June 23. (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

After presiding over an industry of organ transplantation that researchers say has led to a vast death toll of prisoners of conscience, China’s Communist Party has now promised reform. No one has been punished, and no admission of wrongdoing has been made — in fact, the perpetrators are now in charge of the reform process. Question: Do you believe them?

This problem goes to the heart of the disconnect between the researchers into forced organ harvesting in China and the international transplantation establishment. A Congressional hearing 6月に 23 saw the gap narrow regarding what has happened in China, but remain on the prospects for reform, as hard data clashes against implacable optimism.

Sitting at the same hearing table were Dr. Francis L. Delmonico, former president of The Transplantation Society (TTS), デビッド・マタス, and Ethan Gutmann, co-authors (with David Kilgour) of a new, carefully researched report that the authors say documents the systematic genocide of imprisoned prisoners of conscience. 博士. チャールズ・リー, a spokesperson for a human rights research NGO, also spoke.

As one of the key brokers between the international transplant establishment and Chinese officialdom, Delmonico had been invited to testify before the joint subcommittee hearing, chaired by Rep. Chris Smith (R-N.J。) and Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-Calif.), both outspoken critics of rights abuses in China. 担当者. Rohrabacher acknowledged to Delmonico that “you knew you’d be put in the hot seat.”

Delmonico struck a sober tone about abuses in China. He conceded that neither he nor TTS could verify that transplant abuse in China had ceased. He noted several times that he had no insight whatsoever into the prolific and secretive military hospitals—even for a Potemkin Village tour—where most of the forced organ harvesting takes place. He never demurred about the evidence of mass organ harvesting (called “Nazi-like” by Rep. Smith) presented by those flanking him.

博士. Francis L. Delmonico (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

博士. Francis L. Delmonico (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

This was a significant shift in stance for the international transplant establishment. In the past, its reticence about the findings of investigators like Gutmann and Matas has been one of the problems raised by legislative bodies in the West, as they deliberated their own stances.

If Delmonico had held a gatekeeping role before, he appeared to relinquish it. “I’m not here to promise you anything," 彼は言った. At another point, he remarked: “I’m not here to tell you not to worry. I’m not here to verify. That’s not my job…. I’m only here to say that the international community has recognised this terrible practice in China and it wishes to change it.”

But when asked about the prospects for reform, Delmonico was improbably optimistic, testifying that there had recently been a struggle for control over China’s organ transplantation industry, and that the good guys had won.

He argued that under the stewardship of surgeons Huang Jiefu, a high-ranking Communist Party official, and his protege, Wang Haibo, a coterie of young transplant surgeons were ambitious to build careers based on ethical practice. Having looked into their eyes, he had determined that this is the forward-looking crowd that will be leading the future of transplant reform in the country.

He pointed to an independent transplantation foundation funded not by the state, but “a hotel magnate.” He appeared to be under the impression that Huang Jiefu, long China’s spokesperson on organ transplants, was no longer an employee of the state. And he stated that there has been an intense battle for control, resulting in the monthslong house arrest of Huang Jiefu’s protege, Wang Haibo. The ethical surgeons have won, Delmonico said.

All this, at least, is what Delmonico appears to have been told by his Chinese colleagues and interlocutors. It turns out, しかしながら, that much of it is not quite the case.

The error begins with the character of the foundation. The China Organ Transplant Development Foundation referred to is not independent: its primary funder (to the tune of 80 万元, 若しくは $12 百万) is Li Ka-shing, the Hong Kong tycoon with extensive ties to the Communist Party elite, and is headed by a high-ranking Party official—Huang Jiefu.

Huang Jiefu and Li Ka-shing (China News Online)

Huang Jiefu and Li Ka-shing (China News Online)

In an email, Delmonico identified a man named James Fox as a benefactor of the foundation. China media reports make clear, in any case, that the foundation is mainly bankrolled by Li Ka-shing.

“The Transplantation Society are experts in transplants, not human rights,” wrote Matas in an email. “Repressive governments use GONGOs as fronts… This is part of the context that TTS is missing," 彼が追加した, using the acronym for government-organized non-government organization.

The Li Ka-shing connection was revelatory to Gutmann. “Seeing the photos of Huang Jiefu and Li Ka-shing is like seeing two of your oldest enemies together holding cocktails,” Gutmann said in a telephone interview.

“Li Ka-shing is the Armand Hammer of the Chinese Communist Party," 彼が追加した, referring to an American industrialist who had extensive ties to the Soviet Union.

The director-general of the foundation, a role that almost certainly includes determining how its money is spent, is Huang Jiefu. According to Delmonico, this foundation funds the travel and lodging for visiting Western transplant surgeons like himself, who are given tours—Gutmann dismissed them as “junkets”—of China’s hospitals, designed to show the progress of transplant reform in China.

According to experts who have studied the Communist Party’s practices of managing foreigners, such tours are likely to be pre-arranged, tightly scripted affairs, down to the very last detail. There is an entire Party apparatus dedicated to such work, which includes training cadres in “communicating with sympathetic foreigners in a way that [あります] extremely appealing to them,” writes the scholar Anne-Marie Brady.

イーサン・ガットマン (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

イーサン・ガットマン (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

During the hearing, whether Huang Jiefu was in fact a serving official was left vague.

“Jiefu Huang has been part of the government, obviously,” Delmonico said, at one point. The emphasis appeared to be on the past tense, given that Delmonico then highlighted Huang’s current role, in what was identified as the independent foundation.

Later, 担当者. Smith appeared to be under the impression that Huang was only a former official, and appealed to Delmonico for clarification. “He’s the head of a foundation that has received funding from a benefactor, independent of China, to now make the support for this change,” Delmonico responded.

But Huang Jiefu is very much a current official—a high-ranking Chinese Communist Party cadre, no less, with half a dozen titles. 例えば, he is the deputy director of the sensitive Communist Party committee that looks after the health of the top leadership (and a member of the committee’s Party Group); he is a former alternate member of the Central Committee; he is a delegate to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, a Party-controlled entity meant to provide the impression of political pluralism; he’s the deputy director of a committee that is part of the Conference; he is also the director of liver surgery at Peking Union Medical College; in an interview with China Central Television, he says that his involvement in public relations on the transplant issue was a special secondment from the very top of the Party leadership; and finally, and most importantly, he is the co-director of the newly established committee that actually creates policy in the organ transplant sector.

Huang Jiefu's official Chinese Communist Party curriculum vitae (China Leading Cadre Database)

Huang Jiefu’s official Chinese Communist Party curriculum vitae (China Leading Cadre Database)

This committee, and the agency that executes its policies, are appendages of the National Health and Family Planning Commission, a cabinet-level agency.

Congressmen Smith and Rohrabacher were not apprised of the political background of the foundation, nor its lack of independence, and they were not told about either of the official entities who actually run the system in China, nor the composition of doctors involved.

The policymaking body is titled the China Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee; it was established by the National Health and Family Planning Commission on 四月 14. The China Organ Donation Administrative Center, under the Red Cross Society of China, which has been the subject of several public scandals in recent years, is supposed to manage the donation system.

Many of the members of the committee—in fact, every surgeon on it except Wang Haibo—are veterans who performed sometimes thousands of organ transplants in the heyday of China’s rampant organ harvesting system. Some are high-ranking military transplant surgeons. Others may have even engaged in the practice of live organ harvesting, where organ removal is the mechanism of death.

Most organ transplants over the years has been from prisoners of conscience, primarily practitioners of Falun Gong, according to the hefty report by Gutmann, マタス, and Kilgour. It is almost certain that many of the doctors on the new committee were directly involved in this activity.

A case study of 46 “emergency transplants” at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University

In at least one case, the connection is flagrant. Zheng Shusen is a prolific senior liver surgeon at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. He also doubles as the head of Zhejiang Province’s anti-cult association, a communist agitprop organ established specifically to vilify Falun Gong.

Zheng appears regularly on state and Party websites sitting alongside leaders from the 610 Office, a secret Party taskforce established in 1999 to eliminate Falun Gong. Anti-cult associations around the country often work with 610 agents to craft anti-Falun Gong propaganda, casting the practice as a threat to society, thus justifying the regime’s brutal measures against practitioners.

Zheng is also the co-author of a study of 46 cases of “emergency liver transplants” that took place at his institution. It is these transplants — where a match is made between a recipient in need of an organ and a donor who is killed, within just days, sometimes hours — that are among the key points of evidence that China has a pre-typed pool of donors, ready to be killed on demand, experts say.

But the inclusion of liver surgeon Shen Zhongyang on the new committee is perhaps the most eye-catching. He is the mastermind behind Tianjin First Central Hospital, one of the largest transplant facilities in China and certainly the most aggressive in marketing its wares to an international audience.

A study of the activities of Tianjin First by Epoch Times in February this year, based solely on a meticulous examination of its own hospital records and other official documents, found that it had performed at least five times more transplants than it said it had, leading to tens of thousands of organs that cannot be accounted for by any Chinese official explanation.

It was also this very hospital that led to the international transplant community, including Delmonico himself, to offer a public rebuke to the Chinese, as they penned a letter to the top Party leadership castigating China’s transplant system for corruption in 2014.

Tianjin First Central’s website went offline soon afterwards—though Delmonico told Congress that he had heard of a recent anecdote of a woman from Vancouver going there for an organ.

Dana Rohrabacher (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

Dana Rohrabacher (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

After being apprised via email of the actual structure of control of the transplant system in China, and the identities of those who are part of it, Delmonico responded with a statement, copying Rep. Smith and two staffers: “My responsibility as a leader of the international community is to support the change that is underway in China from a reprehensible practice that used organs from the executed prisoner.”

He said that the purpose of his visits was for developing a transparent organ distribution infrastructure consistent with World Health Organization principles, and that he has not been engaged in “an exercise for the Communist Party or the Government of China,” but instead “a collaboration with a current generation of transplant professionals” who are bringing change.

Delmonico, in his testimony, remarked that Wang Haibo, the protege of Huang Jiefu, was put under house arrest for several months. Afterwards, speaking to Rep. Smith from a distance and in the presence of several journalists and attendees, he expressed the certain view that the house arrest was engineered by the enemies of Huang Jiefu, and that now, “something is different, otherwise he wouldn’t be free.”

デビッド・マタス (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

デビッド・マタス (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

Students of the Byzantine world of Chinese politics recognize there has indeed been a battle for control over organ transplantation. But Communist Party struggles are a blood sport, and even for experts who devote their careers to the analysis of elite power dynamics, it is notoriously difficult to accurately gauge the meaning of such events.

The house arrest of Wang Haibo, if it indeed took place, could have multiple meanings. It may have even been, 例えば, an investigation team dispatched by the current leader, 習近平, to get information from Wang about the extent of organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience.

And yet it is the supposed enemies of Huang Jiefu and Wang Haibo—those mostly deeply involved in what experts have described as the mass organ harvesting of Falun Gong—who they now stand shoulder-to-shoulder with, on the committee that sets transplant policy in China.

“This sort of obfuscation,” Gutmann remarked, “assists the Chinese Communist Party in its coverup of a crime against humanity.”

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  • カテゴリー: 一般的な

Former Canadian minister David Kilgour speaks to reporters in Ottawa on June 24, 2016 about the updated report organ harvesting in China that he wrote with David Matas and Ethan Gutmann. (Jonathan Ren/Epoch Times)Former Canadian minister David Kilgour speaks to reporters in Ottawa on June 24, 2016 about the updated report organ harvesting in China that he wrote with David Matas and Ethan Gutmann. (Jonathan Ren/Epoch Times)

A decade ago, two Canadians released a 報告する on illicit organ harvesting in China so shocking that many struggled to believe it.

それ以来, the investigation has continued and they’ve now updated their findings in a report that details the industry that has sprung up in China around the harvesting of human organs.

デビッド・キルガー, a former Secretary of State and federal Member of Parliament and international human rights lawyer David Matas released their initial report in July 2006. This Friday, 六月 24, the two returned to Ottawa with investigative journalist and author Ethan Gutmann, to release updated research that puts transplant volumes at up to 1.5 million in China.


Canadian international human rights lawyer David Matas speaks to reporters in Ottawa on June 24, 2016 about the updated report on organ harvesting in China that he wrote with David Kilgour and Ethan Gutmann. (Jonathan Ren/Epoch Times)

The source of those organs is not explained officially and the Chinese regime claims only 10,000 に 20,000 transplants take place annually rather than the up to 100,000 estimated in the updated 817-page report.

That new figure is based on primary source research from thousands of documents “indicating that the scale of organ transplants is much larger than previously perceived by a large factor,” said Kilgour.

What’s more, despite several reports and extensive investigation into the issue, there is still no stop to the practice.

“For the last 15 年, as you all know, across China there has been regime-sanctioned pillaging and trafficking in the vital organs of prisoners of conscience, overwhelmingly from practitioners of Falun Gong, but also Tibetans, ウイグル, and some house Christians, to fund an immensely profitable but despicable commerce with wealthy Chinese patients and organ tourists,” Kilgour said.

法輪功, also known as Falun Dafa, is a spiritual meditation practice that was first introduced to the public in China in1992, and became immensely popular within a short span of time, with government estimates putting the number of adherents between 70 に 100 百万. The immense popularity of this traditional practice became a source of concern for then-leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 江沢民, who launched a campaign of persecution against the practice in 1999, そして, による undercover investigators getting confirmation from an official, directly gave the order to use the adherents for their organs.

A Billion Dollar Industry

The profits generated from the selling of the organs is in the billions of dollars. Matas said the estimates are now even higher with updated figures on the volume of transplants involved each year.


Investigative journalist Ethan Gutmann speaks to reporters in Ottawa on June 24, 2016 about the updated report on organ harvesting in China that he wrote with Canadians David Matas and David Kilgour. (Jonathan Ren/Epoch Times)

“What’s more, the prices have gone up over time partly because of inflation, and partly because there’s more of a cover-up and there’s enough of a focus that [中国の政権] feel they can charge a premium for doing this undercover work,” said Matas.

“If you just use the old figures, you’re dealing with $6 億へ $10 billion a year. If you put in the escalation because of the coverup, it’s $12 billion and beyond, it’s huge. The hospitals themselves say this is our number one money-maker, this is something that is basically keeping those hospitals going.”

イーサン・ガットマン, whose 2014 book “The Slaughter” is the culmination of seven years of research and investigation into China’s forced organ removal from prisoners of conscience, gave an insight on the estimation of the number of transplants done each year in China’s hospitals.

“Back in 2013 if I was giving a talk with one of the Davids [Matas or Kilgour] or by myself to a college audience or Amnesty International audience in Europe, I’d ask them to Google ‘Shenzhen organ transplant centre.’ This is what would come up: An ad, in English, that is advertising for the transplant centre, for foreigners to come to China. It said ‘we’re the best at heart transplants and lung transplants,’” Gutmann said.

“This establishes that China openly advertised that they had organs on the web. They supposedly banned all organ tours after the [initial] Kilgour-Matas report and forbid it. But of course they hadn’t. They were continuing to advertise, just in a more discreet way.”

Investigations from different sources, including online advertisement and internal communications at the hospital, show that the hospital had 500 に 700 beds devoted just for transplants, and they had 100 パーセントへ 131 percent occupancy rates, with the hospital claiming that at times they had to put patients into hotels due to lack of space.

Gutmann said that puts the estimates of the number of transplants at this hospital alone at a minimum of 5,000 transplant a year. Another major hospital, the People’s Liberation Army’s 309 hospital in Beijing, is similarly estimated to perform about 4,000 transplants a year. Taking into account that there are 146 hospitals certified by the Chinese Ministry of Health to do transplants, and looking at their capabilities and other pieces of information, the report’s authors said they were able to estimate the annual rate of transplants in China.

The Update

Besides the update on the volume of transplants involved, the updated report focuses on several other areas.

The report looks at the CCP’s coverup of the forced organ harvesting and the regime’s attempts to hide individual hospital transplant figures. The report also explores the driving factors behind the volumes, the structure the regime has built around organ harvesting, the culpable individuals, and the CCP’s claims of recent transplant reforms. As well, the report addresses plastination, which involves the replacement of bodily fluids with polymers in a corpse for display at exhibitions.

“There is compelling evidence that practitioners of Falun Gong are killed for both plastination and organ sourcing. The evidence supporting each abuse is also evidence in support of the other abuse,” said Matas.

A Supply Problem

The problem with transplant abuse in China cannot be solved by stopping the flow of people traveling there for organs, said Matas. “We could end transplant tourism into China entirely and organ transplant abuse in China could still continue.”

しかしながら, other nations are obligated to do what they can to avoid complicity in that abuse, 彼は言った.

Matas gives the example of how King Leopold II of Belgium at the turn of the 20th century was engaged in slavery in the Congo and how that came to light by investigations conducted by Edmund Morel, a shipping line clerk.

Kilgour Matas Gutmann

(L-R)Canadian human rights lawyer David Matas, former Canadian secretary of state for Asia-Pacific David Kilgour, and American investigative journalist and author Ethan Gutmann take part in a press conference on the release of their update report on organ harvesting in China in Ottawa on June 24, 2016. (Jonathan Ren/NTD Television)

Morel had noticed that the goods coming to the Congo were guns, ammunition, and explosives, which went to the state or its agents, but the goods that left Congo were ivory and rubber, of much higher value than the goods sent in. He concluded that the ivory and rubber were not purchased in exchange of good being shipped in, but rather the people producing the goods in the Congo were providing slave labour.

“The conclusion was noteworthy because it was made without an eye witness evidence of slavery. It came just from shipping records. His work was initially met with official denials, yet it was accurate,” Matas said.

At first, many were worried about offending Belgium by pressing the issue, but the British government eventually commissioned their consul in Congo to conduct an independent investigation into the issue, and the consul confirmed the existence of slavery in Congo after travelling there.

Matas said that discrepancy between the value of traded goods is very similar to discrepancy between the volume of transplants and the available donors.

“The China discrepancy today points as much to a human rights violation as the Belgium discrepancy did yesterday. The need for a [Canadian] government or inter-governmental independent investigation is as great.”

Kilgour and Matas have both requested visas to China to further investigate the issue in person, but their requests have been denied.

Canada Should ‘Walk the Walk’

Matas said Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi’s lashing out at a Canadian journalist in a joint press conference with Canadian foreign minister Stephane Dion in Ottawa earlier in June is an opportunity for Canada to press China about the organ harvesting practice.

“There’s been some criticism of Stephane Dion for saying nothing. I consider that an opportunity because if the Chinese minister of foreign affairs can do that publicly in Canada, then the Canadian minister of foreign affairs and the Canadian Prime Minister can do that publicly in China. That’s what should happen,” Matas said.

“I would like to see our Canadian leaders going to China and saying publicly to the journalists: Why aren’t you reporting on this?」

In addition to raising this issue with the Chinese regime, Canada should take its own initiatives in the area, Matas said, which include legislation, resolutions, and conducting investigations into the issue.

He cites the 米国. House of Representatives passing a unanimous resolution condemning harvesting of organs from Falun Gong practitioners in mid June.

“We need to get the [Canadian] government engaged, not just in talking politely to China, but doing their own work on this file,” Matas said.

Kilgour said he was pleased that Prime Minister Justin Trudeau expressed dissatisfaction with Chinese foreign minister’s conduct in Canada, and noted that a Nanos poll commissioned by the Globe and Mail shows that 76 percent of Canadians have a negative view of the Chinese government.

“If [中国語] President Xi [Jinping] wants to turn that around, the best way he can do it is to stop this organ pillaging, trafficking immediately. He has no connection with Jiang Zemin, who did this, そして [西] can stop it, but he should do it now. He shouldn’t wait another two years.”

Gutmann氏, 米. citizen who lives in London, said he knows Canada as a beacon of human rights in the world, and it’s time for Canada “to walk the walk.” He said Canada should follow examples of countries like Taiwan, Israel, and Spain who have made it illegal for their citizens to get organ transplants in China.

“They [countries with legislation] are not really going to pay a price and nobody else has paid a price. Taiwan hasn’t paid a price for passing organ harvesting laws; Israel hasn’t paid a price; I don’t believe Spain has. There’s a reason for that, because [中国の政権] know they’re guilty, Everybody knows this. This is a huge embarrassment, they are trying to cover it up.”

With reporting by Pam McLennan


David Matas presents a new report on mass organ harvesting in China at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C.. 6月に 22. (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)David Matas presents a new report on mass organ harvesting in China at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C.. 6月に 22. (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

WASHINGTON, D.C.—The authors of a new report about state-led organ harvesting in China presented their findings at the National Press Club on June 22, calling it a “slow motion genocide” that has led to likely over 1 million organs removed from unwilling donors.

“This fits the pattern of King Leopold and the Congo, and the genocides in Cambodia and Darfur,” said David Kilgour a former Canadian parliamentarian and a co-author of the new report.

King Leopold of Belgium wrought a death toll of tens of millions running a slave trade in the Congo, researchers suspect, while in Cambodia and Darfur, Sudan, government and militia embarks on class and ethnic cleansing massacres with vast death tolls.

The study is titled “Bloody Harvest/The Slaughter: An Update,” and builds on the previous work of the authors.

The report says that Chinese hospitals across China have transplanted roughly between 60,000 そして 100,000 organs per year since 2000. The death toll of all this activity is unclear, though according to the statements of Chinese doctors, it is likely that in the majority of cases one transplant equaled one death.

“The ultimate conclusion of this update, and indeed our previous work, is that China has engaged in the mass killing of prisoners of conscience, primarily practitioners of the spiritual based exercises Falun Gong and others… in order to obtain organs for transplants,” said David Matas, a Canadian lawyer who has investigated the issue for a decade, and a co-author of the report.

“We’re going through over 700 病院, some of them in great detail,” Matas said. “We reach the Chinese official figure by looking at the volume in just a few hospitals. We’re dealing with a multiple of that here. Many of the hospitals are relatively new, or have new transplant wings or beds. That wouldn’t have happened without confidence in continued supply.”

イーサン・ガットマン (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

イーサン・ガットマン (Lisa Fan/Epoch Times)

イーサン・ガットマン, a journalist and the third co-author of the report, remarked that the number of hospitals capable of thousands of transplants a year is “breathtaking.” “The pictures are breathtaking. They show medical staff that look like football teams advancing down the field.”

Or perhaps like military squads.

As the leader of the Renji Hospital’s Liver Transplant Centre, Xia Qiang, said in 2005: “The management of my team is militarized. Every medical staff member must keep their cell phone turned on 24 hours a day, because liver transplants may require going out for graft procurement or preparing for surgery at any time. We doctors must be on standby at all times.”

“What we see is the transplant industry expanding over time,” Matas said. “Organ supply has never been a problem—the limitations of the system have been doctors, 病院, beds, nurses, training. So the number year by year has been growing because the hardware and capacity, not the organ availability, has increased.”

When the authors were asked whether they regarded their findings as genocide, Gutmann氏は語りました: “I use the ‘G’ word. Genocide… has a definitve meaning in human rights. If it’s an attempt to kill off a people then, yes, we’re looking at that. It’s a slow-motion genocide; a drip, drip, drip, genocide.”

デビッド・キルガー (大紀元)

デビッド・キルガー (大紀元)

Matas said that it is clear from the Communist Party’s own literature on Falun Gong that it regarded the population as a group to be targeted with death. “If you look at all the propaganda against Falun Gong, it’s incitement to hatred of the vilest sort… within a Chinese context, where there are no contrary statements… it’s incitement to hatred, incitement to genocide.”

He continued, at a later point during the press conference: “Our ultimate conclusion, aside from the fact that there is a huge number of transplants going on, is that China has a duty to explain what’s going on here.”

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  • カテゴリー: 一般的な

(Illustration by Jens Almroth/Epoch Times)(Illustration by Jens Almroth/Epoch Times)

Transplant surgeons in China are awash in human organs. Some complain of working 24-hour shifts, performing back-to-back transplant surgeries. Others ensure they’ve got spare organs available, freshly harvested—just in case. Some hospitals can source organs within just hours, while others report transplanting two, three, or four back-up organs, when the first fails.

All this has been taking place in China for over a decade, with no voluntary organ donation system and only thousands of executed prisoners—what China says is its official organ source. In phone calls, Chinese doctors say the real source of organs is a state secret. その間に, practitioners of Falun Gong have disappeared in large numbers, and many report being blood tested in custody.

An unprecedented report by a small team of relentless investigators was published on June 22, documenting in sometimes astonishing detail the ecosystem of hundreds of Chinese hospitals and transplant facilities that have been operating quietly in China since around the year 2000.

Collectively, these facilities had the capacity to perform between 1.5 そして 2.5 million transplants over the last 16 年, 報告書によると. The authors suspect the actual transplant figures fall between 60,000 に 100,000 per year since the year 2000.

“The ultimate conclusion of this update, and indeed our previous work, is that China has engaged in the mass killing of innocents,” said David Matas upon the report’s launch at the National Press Club on June 22.

The study, titled “Bloody Harvest/The Slaughter: An Update” builds on the previous work of the authors on the topic. Coming on the passage of an official censure of organ harvesting in China by the House of Representatives, the research poses an explosive question: has large-scale medical genocide been taking place in China?

(L–R) デビッド・キルガー (L) with David Matas (C) and Ethan Gutmann (R), author of 'The Slaughter: 大量殺害, オルガンの収穫, and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem.' (Simon Gross/Epoch Times)

(L–R) デビッド・キルガー (L) with David Matas (C) and Ethan Gutmann (R), authors of “Bloody Harvest/The Slaughter: An Update.” (Simon Gross/Epoch Times)

Big Profits

The People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, whose main task is to provide healthcare for top Communist Party and military officials, is among the most advanced and well-equipped hospitals in China. By the early 2000s, it was making most of its money from organ transplants.

“In recent years, the transplant center has been the primary profitable healthcare unit, with gross income of 30 million yuan in 2006 に 230 million in 2010—a growth of nearly 8-fold in five years,” its website says. That’s $4.5 万人に $34 百万.

The PLA’s General Hospital wasn’t the only healthcare institution to stumble across this lucrative business opportunity. The Daping Hospital in Chongqing, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University, also somehow managed to boost its revenue from 36 million yuan in the late 1990s, when it just got into transplants, to nearly 1 billion in 2009—a growth of 25 times.

Even Huang Jiefu, China’s spokesperson on organ transplantation, stated to the respected business publication Caijing in late 2006: “There’s a trend of organ transplantation becoming a tool for hospitals to make money.”

How these remarkable feats were achieved in so short a time across China, when there was no voluntary organ donation system, when the number of death row prisoners was decreasing, and where the waiting times for patients expecting transplants could sometimes be measured in weeks, days, or even hours, is the subject of the new page report.

Parts of the report, drawing from whistleblower testimony and Chinese medical papers, say that some donors may not have even been dead when their organs were removed.

“This is extremely difficult research to have done,” said Dr. Li Huige, a professor at the medical center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany, and a member of the Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting advisory board, after reviewing the study.

The report contains a forensic tally of all known organ transplantation centers in China—over 700 of them—and counts their bed numbers, utilization rates, surgical staff, training programs, new infrastructure, recipient waiting times, advertised transplant numbers, use of immunosuppressants and illore. The authors, armed with this data, then make estimates about the total number of transplants performed. The number stretches past 1 百万.

This conclusion, though is only half the story.

“It’s a mammoth system. Each hospital has so many doctors, nurses, and surgeons. That in itself isn’t a problem. China’s a big country,” said Dr. で, in a telephone interview. “But where did all the organs come from?」

Captive Bodies

Organs for transplant can’t be removed from dead bodies and simply put into storage until needed: They need to be recovered before or soon after death, and then quickly implanted into a new host. The often desperate timing and logistics around this process make organ matching in most countries a complex field, with waiting lists and dedicated teams who encourage family members of accident victims to donate organs.

But in China, the donors seem to be captive, waiting around for the recipients.

Changzheng Hospital in Shanghai, a major PLA medical center, reported performing 120 “emergency liver transplants” as of April 2006.

The term means that a patient with a life-threatening condition presents to the hospital or transplant ward, and a matching organ is then found within hours or days. This happens rarely in other countries.

But the Changzheng hospital published an entire paper in the Journal of Clinical Surgery, a Chinese medical journal, about its success with emergency transplants. “The shortest time for a patient to be transplanted after entering hospital was 4 hours,” it says.

In a one week period from April 22 to April 30, 2005, the hospital performed 16 liver and 15 kidney transplants.

Chinese doctors carry fresh organs for transplant at a hospital in Henan Province on Aug. 16, 2012. (Screenshot/Sohu.com)

Chinese doctors carry fresh organs for transplant at a hospital in Henan Province on Aug. 16, 2012. (Screenshot/Sohu.com)

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University published its own study in a similar vein, documenting that between early 2000 and late 2004, 46 patients received “emergency liver transplants”—meaning that recipients were all matched with a donor within 72 hours.

Even the official China Liver Transplant Registry, で set of slides presenting its 2006 annual report, compares the number of “selectively timed” transplant surgeries with the emergency transplants. There were 3,181 regular transplants in the year, そして 1,150, or just over a quarter, made under emergency matching conditions.

These phenomena are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to explain according to official pronouncements. And they stand as prima facie evidence that a captive donor population is on standby, waiting to be harvested.

“This is very emotive for me,” said Wendy Rogers, an Australian bioethicist at Macquarie University, whose close friend suffered liver failure due to hepatitis, and needed a transplant within three days if she was to live. “She was extraordinarily lucky to get one in that timeframe,” Dr. Rogers said.

“But to do 46 of them in a row? It’s hard to think of another plausible explanation, apart from killing on demand.”

Parts of the report, drawing from whistleblower testimony and Chinese medical papers, say that some donors may not have even been dead when their organs were removed. This includes the testimony of a former armed police officer, who said he witnessed a live harvest operation conducted without anesthesia, and that of a former healthcare worker in Jinan.

Targeted for Elimination

The authors of the new report, relying on previous evidence and new findings, contend that the primary population in China that could have been so targeted are prisoners of conscience, composed primarily of practitioners of Falun Gong.

Falun Gong is a traditional discipline of the Buddhist school that became extremely popular in China throughout the 1990s. It involves doing five meditative exercises and living according to teachings based on the principles of truthfulness, 同情, そして、寛容. The state tacitly supported Falun Gong, and an official survey indicated there were upwards of 70 million practitioners by 1999—a larger number than members of the Communist Party.

Plain-cloth police brutally arrest Falun Gong practitioners on Tiananmen Square.   (Compassion Magazine)

Plainclothes police arrest Falun Gong practitioners on Tiananmen Square in 1999. (Compassion Magazine)

In July 1999, the leader of the regime, 江沢民, unleashed a national campaign to eliminate the practice. He initially met with high-level opposition, but quickly turned the anti-Falun Gong mobilization into a means of consolidating his power in the Party, promoting loyalists and sidelining resisters.

Organ harvesting as a means of eliminating the Falun Gong population appears to have begun by the following year.

The evidence that this has been taking place has been available for a decade now—but this is the first time in which the estimated death toll is so formidable, the sheer volume of evidence so overwhelming, and the central role of the state as enabler so clear.

The three authors of the report—David Kilgour, デビッド・マタス, and Ethan Gutmann—have previously published on the topic, but the report is the first time that they have joined forces. Even they were surprised by the results of the study.

“When you were a kid, did you ever pick up a big rock and see all this life underneath it—ants and insects? That’s what the experience of working on this report has been like,” said Gutmann, a journalist whose book on the topic, “The Slaughter,” was published in 2014.

David Kilgour is a former Canadian parliamentarian, and David Matas is a well-known human rights lawyer; the pair published a book on the topic, 「ブラッディ・ハーベスト,” in 2009, which followed upon a groundbreaking report by the same name released in July 2006.

In the last few years, researchers of transplant abuse in China had largely been under the impression that the scale of organ harvesting had retreated considerably, or at least that Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience were no longer targeted.

The authors discovered this was not so. “They’ve built a juggernaut,” Gutmann said. “We’re looking at a gigantic flywheel which they can’t seem to stop. I don’t believe it’s just profit behind it, I believe it’s ideology, mass murder, and the coverup of a terrible crime where the only way to cover up that crime is to keep killing people who know about it.”

The backbone of the report, and its single largest section, is an exhaustive account of every hospital in China that is known to perform transplants. の 712 that are identified, 164 are given a detailed, individual treatment.

Centers of Harvesting

The Nanjing General Hospital, in the Nanjing Military Command, 例えば, is accorded two pages. The prolific career of Li Leishi, the founder of the kidney research center at the hospital, is introduced, including a Communist Party document that made mandatory the study of the “model” he had established—Li was being commended for building one of the fastest growing kidney transplant enters in the country.

で 2008 interview, で, then 82 years old, said that in the past he typically did 120 kidney transplants a year, but now only does 70. Another chief surgeon was reported to be performing “hundreds of kidney transplants a year” as of 2001. とともに 11 chief and 6 associate surgeons engaged in kidney transplants, the total volume of transplants at the hospital may have reached around 1,000 annually, the report says.

Astonishing transplant volumes like this appear throughout the report.

At the Fuzhou General Hospital, also in the Nanjing Military Command, the doctor Tan Jianming had personally directed 4,200 kidney transplants as of 2014, according to his biography on a website belonging to the Chinese Medical Doctor Association.

The Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University, in southwest Chongqing, says it did 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002, 含めて 24 on a single day.

Zhu Jiye, director of the Peking University Organ Transplant Institute, 前記 に 2013 that “there was one year in which our hospital did 4,000 liver and kidney transplant operations.”

An re-enactment of organ harvesting in China on Falun Gong practitioners, during a rally in Ottawa, カナダ, 2008. (大紀元)

A re-enactment of organ harvesting in China on Falun Gong practitioners, during a rally in Ottawa, カナダ, 2008. (大紀元)

In a June 2004 paper published in the “Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces,” a handy table is provided that notes that the Beijing Friendship Hospital and the Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital had conducted more than 2,000 kidney transplants by the end of the year 2000. Three other hospitals were each recorded to have performed 1,000 by the end of that year. Most of these must have been performed only in a year or so, given that up until the end of the 1990s, transplantation in China was a boutique medical niche.

Hospital after hospital, page after page, volume figures like this are laid down, sourced back to official Chinese publications, including speeches, internal newsletters, hospital websites, medical journals, media reports, and more.

Without exception, these hospitals only discuss such impressive volume figures beginning in the year 2000. The massive infrastructure development, surgeon training programs, and volumes also only begin being reported then—soon after the onset of the persecution of Falun Gong.

State Killing Machine

The Chinese regime’s official line on its organ sources has shifted over time. に 2001, when the first defector emerged from China claiming that the regime was using death row prisoners as an organ source, official spokesmen denied it, claiming that China relies primarily on voluntary donors.

に 2005, officials began hinting that death row prisoners were instead used. And after allegations of organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners were made public, に 2006, Chinese officials insisted that death row prisoners, who consented to having their organs removed after death, were the primary source.

But the menacing conclusion that slowly emerges through the research—817 pages, and nearly 2,000 footnotes of it—is that the entire industry was deliberately created, almost overnight—right after the abundant new organ source became available.

This is suggested by the immense state involvement, both at the central and local level, in the industry. Beginning in the 1990s, China’s healthcare system was largely privatized, with the state only paying for infrastructure, while hospitals had to finance themselves.

The liver transplant center at Renji Hospital saw a leapfrogging number of transplant beds: から 13 後半で 2004 に 23 two weeks later, に 90 に 2007, そして 110 に 2014.

に 2006, Tianjin First Central Hospital added an entire 17-story building, とともに 500 beds, just for organ transplants. There are many other such cases; the report contains photographs of the often impressive buildings.

Organ transplantation quickly became a profitable business, and the central and local government underwrote research and development, the construction of palatial new transplant facilities, and funded doctor training programs, including the overseas training of hundreds of transplant surgeons.

The Tianjin First Central Hospital. (Hospital files)

The Tianjin First Central Hospital. (Hospital files)

An entire industry of Chinese-made anti-rejection drugs came online, while Chinese hospitals began developing their own preservative solutions, chemicals in which organs are kept between the donor and the recipient.

As the transplant center associated with China Medical University in Shenyang 前記 on its website: “To be able to complete such a large number of organ transplant surgeries every year, we need to give all of our thanks to the support given by the government. In particular, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Public Security system, judicial system, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs have jointly promulgated laws to establish that organ procurement receives government support and protection. This is a one of a kind in the world.”

The authors of the report have declined to give a death toll. While it is possible that in some cases multiple organs came from a single victim, until 2013 China had only an ad hoc and localized matching system. Chinese surgeons have also complained about the great wastage in China’s transplant industry, where often only one organ comes from one donor. Thus, if 60,000 に 100,000 transplant surgeries were performed annually, the death toll of organ harvesting in China may stretch to 1.5 百万.

The authors are publishing their findings at a time when the climate of opinion on this issue seems poised for a shift: Journalists are more willing to look into the topic; documentaries on it are being produced and winning awards; and the number of transplant doctors and ethicists who are learning about China’s transplant system, and who are appalled by it, is growing.

Recently, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution, in which members denounced China’s practices as “ghoulish” and “disgusting.”

A 2015 documentary on the issue, now being screened on PBS, is titled “Hard to Believe” and explores how the issue has been received by the worlds of journalism and medicine. There, the gravity of what has taken place in China for a decade and a half is only now beginning in sink in. (Disclosure: the author of this article was interviewed for the documentary.)

Wendy Rogers, the Australian scholar, has in her own experience found others have difficulty taking in what is happening in China.

“I had to explain it in detail to a German friend who’s a bioethicist, who deals with many challenging international topics,” Rogers said. “She literally couldn’t believe me, and asked: ‘Why didn’t I know about this already?’”

The headline of this article has been modified to better reflect the conclusions of the report.


大紀元: Can you introduce me to this new report that is coming out?

イーサン・ガットマン: Well, it doesn’t have a flashy title. It’s simply “Bloody Harvest/The Slaughter: An Update.” It’s very minimal. We are not trying to reproduce our earlier work. David Kilgour and David Matas wrote “Bloody Harvest” and they put a lot of work into it over the years. I wrote “The Slaughter「. It took seven years. The idea of the new report is to update our findings.

There is an indisputable mound of information at this point showing that Chinese transplant volumes are significantly higher than anything that Beijing has claimed. The usual claim is that China does around 10,000 transplants a year. But when you look at the hospitals and transplant centres – the military hospitals and civilian hospitals, secondary transplant centres, 小さい, medium and large transplant centres – and you count them up and see what their actual volume is? Well, the lowest number we arrive at is approximately 60,000 1年当たり, not 10,000. The number that seems more likely to us is about 100,000 1年当たり. Now this is in a country that claims that it is no longer sourcing organs from death row prisoners. This is in a country that didn’t have a system until quite recently to accept voluntary transplants. The voluntary transplants that occur are usually within a family, where one family member might give a kidney to another family member.

We are looking at not 10,000 transplants per year in China, but something more like 60,000 に 100,000 transplants a year in China.

— Ethan Gutmann

One of the things we’ve noticed about these hospitals is the incredible amount of construction—huge transplant wings have been added; cities and provinces that did not have a transplant industry have, seemingly by central planning, been given transplant industries. This is one of the most striking features of the research. Yet as much as people might want to see this as simply for-profit, it is not. There is an element of central planning throughout. Transplantation, although never publicly declared to be a “pillar industry” in China, is clearly being thought of in that way at the highest levels of the Communist Party.

These numbers are absolutely extraordinary, staggering.

アンド: What is the research based on? What evidence have you used?

EG: Well, the sources are obscure. This is a country that does not want to openly speak about organ harvesting. This is a country where discussion is blacked out because this is one of the most dangerous issues to the Chinese Communist Party. So it turns out that Nurses Weekly is one of the most important sources out there: an internal publication, obviously something only a specialist in China would read. Yet it actually has clues to harvesting and transplant numbers in some cases. This is information that would never be put on a website that could reveal something to the West but it’s out there. And it’s out there in dissertations, even dissertation proposals, hospital internal newsletters and even on some very obscure websites.

Author Ethan Gutmann and his new book “The Slaughter” to be released Aug. 12. San Francisco, カリフォルニア州。, 7月 29, 2014 (Steve Ispas/Epoch Times)

We had to bring this information out. What we essentially had was a mountain of material from these hospitals. And you come out with larger numbers from these individual hospitals by counting them up. It’s like building blocks. You stack them up and you keep adding until you’ve built a mountain.

That’s actually very powerful because, continuing the analogy, it means that once you’ve built the mountain, well, even if you lose a ledge or have a landslide it doesn’t change the fact that you have a mountain. The mountain is still very high. Some of these hospitals have authorization, some of them don’t. But we do have evidence that they’re performing these transplants. And that information is extremely damaging to the Chinese medical establishment because the numbers are extraordinary.

Some of the most reliable witnesses I interviewed knew the open secret: Falun Gong were being harvested.

— Ethan Gutmann

アンド: How do you go from showing that large numbers of transplants have taken place from an unknown source, to concluding that the organs must have come from a particular source – i.e. 法輪功の実践, and others?

EG: We don’t conclude that in the sense that it’s an open question: what possible sources could they be using? We don’t preclude the idea that more death row prisoners are being executed for their organs than previously understood. We’re looking at a 600 percent increase in the amount of transplants that are commonly understood per year. We’re going from 10,000 a year to 60,000 a year at a minimum – that is the smallest we can plausibly come up with. The largest is 100,000 or more. And even if you’re just following China’s medical rules, you basically come up with a number that’s close to 90,000. We can’t rule out that there are more death row executions than previously understood. But even then, you can’t get to these spectacular numbers. The other source has to be prisoners of conscience. How that breaks down, whether and how many are Falun Gong – well, we assume the majority, or even the vast majority, are Falun Gong. There may be some House Christians, ウイグル, チベット人, or another group we haven’t yet identified. The update opens up a lot of questions.

This is a country where discussion is blacked out because this is one of the most dangerous issues to the Chinese Communist Party.

— Ethan Gutmann

We are building on previous research—both Bloody Harvest and The Slaughter—which convincingly made the case that prisoners of conscience were and are being harvested for their organs in China. So we’re not trying to fight old battles here. We’re not trying to prove something that we feel is already proven, something it’s just taken the world a little time to catch up with.

アンド: What is the key evidence you rely on to contend that prisoners of conscience, primarily practitioners of Falun Gong, are in fact killed for their organs?

EG: For me, it’s based on interviews with refugees who’ve come out of the labor camp system and have reported exams targeted at their retail organs. These exams were generally not given to any other prisoners, although in some cases Uyghurs report them, and in some cases House Christians do also. I was also able to show that Tibetans have received almost exact the same exams, and again, other prisoners were ignored. That tells us that they are targets for organ harvesting.

What we’re looking at is one of the greatest cover-ups in human history.

— Ethan Gutmann

But it’s even more explicit than that: Some of the most reliable witnesses I interviewed knew the open secret: Falun Gong were being harvested. They would select them and take them away in buses from labor camps each year. A witness showed me where the buses parked, near his cell block. We’ve understood that for some time. It’s taking place. Most of the argument has been about the numbers.

We don’t know how many Falun Gong are being harvested because we don’t know how many organs are taken from each individual. Very likely it’s only one—one liver, one kidney, one heart from each individual, and it gets tissue matched with an organ tourist or other recipient. But we do know that it is possible to take three, maybe four, organs from a single individual, and if you have four recipients who are lined up right there, and have had their blood matched with this particular individual, well, it’s theoretically possible to do that too. So we cannot give the numbers of deaths, a murder number so to speak. We can say that our previous estimates are underestimates. That we can say.

It’s possible to generate a crude range, but I think we should be chastened by this new information.

As much as I was hoping that I had finished my book and could move on to other subjects and other topics, I can’t do that with a clear conscience. Not with these findings.

— Ethan Gutmann

アンド: In my discussions with transplant surgeons about this issue, I have heard prominent individuals in the international transplant establishment say things like: “Well, it may not be Falun Gong. It’s probably organ trafficking—’your kidney for an iPad’ type of thing.” What do you say to that?

EG: Only someone who is very ignorant about China would make such statements. Only someone who has never bothered to look at my accounts of refugee interviews would make such statements. Anyone who has lived in China understands that there is a fair amount of control over profitable enterprises. China hasn’t been taken over by triads. That’s an excuse that the Chinese medical establishment has tried to dance out, several times, almost cyclically: “Oh, it’s some kind of triad activity.” Since 2012 we’ve known that powerful official figures, like Wang Lijun, the protege of Bo Xilai, a prominent figure in Chinese politics at the time, was running a very productive organ harvesting center.

A person who would say that about trafficking is simply naive. That’s a problem with Western surgeons going into China. It’s not that they’re pernicious or have an evil motive. But they have really never taken the time to understand anything about China, and how it may be different from other areas of the world where they’ve done great work. China’s an extremely large country that is centrally run. This isn’t a Third World basket case where the government doesn’t run much of anything.

アンド: For people who are already somewhat familiar with your (collective) research into the topic, what is new and important about the new report?

EG: What the report shows quite conclusively is that we are looking at not 10,000 transplants per year in China, but something more like 60,000 に 100,000 transplants a year in China.

This is a new form of genocide. It’s using the most respected members of society to implement it: the medical profession.

— Ethan Gutmann

Now, this number is extremely upsetting when you think about the sources. Clearly death row prisoners cannot fill the void. はっきり, even if voluntary organ donations in China have gone up, they can’t reach this level. And when looking at the warm ischemia time in some of the transplants—the time from when the heart stops to when the organ is removed—it’s way too low. It’s almost instantaneous. This is live organ harvesting. And what that probably means is that we are looking at Falun Gong in the main, but also Uyghurs, Tibetans and House Christians. These are the groups that have been targeted from the beginning and they continue to be targeted.

We see no sign of any hospitals closing or transplant centers struggling. In fact we see the opposite: we see construction programs. That’s the picture: Hundreds and hundreds of hospitals. And it has become their bread and butter. The economic mainstay of their profession is to keep this thing going. But that is a death sentence for the groups we’re talking about.

One final thing that we mention in our report is a striking piece of information: Falun Gong practitioners in six provinces have been given blood tests in their homes. Police come, knock on their door, and then administer a blood test – one that is clearly intended for tissue matching. This is taking place in their homes, not in the prison cells, not in the labor camps, not in the black jails. When I first heard about this I said: this is a scare tactic, they’re telling them to behave and not get into trouble again. And that still might be true, but the fact is—and I really hate to use Holocaust references here—but what happens when you start registering people? What does that mean? If you go back and look at when they started registering Jews in Holland, what did that lead to? Maybe it started out as a way of some sort of social control. Maybe it started out as a scare tactic. But it lead to something else. And in fact, looking at these reports from the hospitals and the hospitals bragging about the extraordinary volume they’re producing—you feel that you’re looking at history repeating itself.

アンド: Have you come up with a death toll?

EG: We’re putting this report out without coming up with a casualty number, for Falun Gong practitioners for example. We can’t. Because we don’t know if they’re getting two organs out of a Falun Gong practitioner, or one organ, or even three organs. It is very hard to get three organs tissue matched into new donors. It’s very hard to do that all simultaneously but it is possible. So for that reason, we cannot come up with a clear number.

But what I can say is that the numbers we estimated previously for Kilgour and Matas—which was 41,500 organs between 2001 そして 2005, for me, I made an estimate from 2005 に 2008 that said that 65,000 Falun Gong practitioners have been harvested for their organs—at this point, those numbers look very low. Very low.

(L–R) デビッド・キルガー (L) with David Matas (C) and Ethan Gutmann (R), author of 'The Slaughter: 大量殺害, オルガンの収穫, and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem.' (Simon Gross/Epoch Times)

(L–R) デビッド・キルガー (L) with David Matas (C) and Ethan Gutmann (R), author of ‘The Slaughter: 大量殺害, オルガンの収穫, and China’s Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem.’ (Simon Gross/Epoch Times)

I am not saying this is the end of the investigation in any way. This is a horseback judgement. It’s an interim report. But the world really does need to wake up to what is going on. This problem has not been solved. It’s worse.

I want to say something personal about this. When I was writing my book I believed I was writing about history, that I was not writing about something that was current. But I look at this and say it wasn’t history, it never was. This is a current event. And it is a terrible event. As much as I was hoping that I had finished my book and could move on to other subjects and other topics, I can’t do that with a clear conscience. Not with these findings.

アンド: What do you expect or home to be the outcome of the release of the report, and the fallout?

EG: We hope that it will lead to some policy changes in the West. We’re not expecting them to bomb China’s railways, we’re not expecting them to declare war, we’re not expecting the Western nations to cut off economic relations with China. But perhaps we will try to keep our own hands clean. This is the minimum requirement of a Western society now: If we have people going to China for organs, that needs to be recorded. We should never be asked a question in the United States congress or in the European Parliament about how many of our people are going to China to get organs. That is a question that it is up to the Western societies to answer. There is no reason for medical confidentiality. If you walk into a hospital with a gunshot wound in America in most states, it is considered a police matter not just a medical matter. It doesn’t matter if you say, “I was cleaning my gun and it went off. It was an accident.” It is a police matter.

If we have people going to China for organs, that needs to be recorded.

— Ethan Gutmann

アンド: Where does the issue go from here?

EG: Ultimately to get the kind of really reliable answers that we need? It’s the responsibility of China to provide those answers. And that’s not going to happen because of some video on the web or some social media movement. It’s going to happen because the governments of the West and the United Nations demand these answers. And even then it’s going to be very hard to get these answers and very hard to find justice. But this is one of the central tests of our time. I believe that, if we can get anything out of a tragedy like this, it is that the human species has no choice but to look as closely as it can at this form of genocide. This is a new form of genocide. It’s using the most respected members of society to implement it: the medical profession. And for these reasons we can’t avoid this any longer.

So this is no longer history, this is something quite current. What we’re looking at is one of the greatest cover-ups in human history. The Chinese state has determined that the best thing to do is simply wipe out anyone in Falun Gong, anyone in the Uyghur community and anyone in the Tibetan community who has been exposed to this—wipe them out and get rid of the evidence.


Former President Jiang Zemin attend the closing session of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on Nov. 14, 2012, 北京で, 中国. Names of Jiang was absent from a mourning list of dozens of high level leaders and retired officials, hinting a fading power of Jiang. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Former President Jiang Zemin attend the closing session of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on Nov. 14, 2012, 北京で, 中国. Names of Jiang was absent from a mourning list of dozens of high level leaders and retired officials, hinting a fading power of Jiang. (Feng Li/Getty Images)


The former Chinese Communist Party leader responsible for ordering the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners and the harvesting of their organs has become the target of current leader Xi Jinping’s purge of the Party.

Jiang Zemin was forcibly removed from his residence by Chinese paramilitary troops in the early morning of June 10, according to a source in a security detail assigned to retired senior cadres.

Jiang was last seen in the custody of senior military officers and persons in plain clothes in a Beijing Military Region compound. The order to seize Jiang was issued by the regime’s top military governing body and was executed with extreme secrecy, according to the source.

At the time, it was Chairman Jiang. There was an instruction to start this thing, organ transplantation.

— Bai Shuzhong, Former minister of health of the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department

If this report proves to be accurate, the arrest is the culmination of a more than three-year anti-corruption campaign that has systematically uprooted the sources of Jiang’s power. Even if the report is somehow premature—perhaps Jiang was just brought in for a “chat”—the targeting of Jiang Zemin is nonetheless clear.

Recently, the anti-corruption campaign has zeroed in on those closest to Jiang. Jiang’s elder son is under house arrest, and this spring the Party’s internal disciplinary agency conducted a massive sweep of Shanghai, Jiang’s longtime power base, targeting institutions that have ties to Jiang and his two sons. All along, Jiang’s allies and their cronies have continued to be purged.

Bloody Hands

On July 20, 1999, Jiang Zemin ordered the regime’s security forces to “eradicate” the practice of Falun Gong. “Ruin their reputations, bankrupt them financially, and destroy them physically,” the police were instructed, according to many accounts from Falun Gong practitioners who heard these words firsthand.

When Jiang found that the practitioners held firm to their faith in the face of brutal torture and abuse, he devised a kind of “final solution.”

“At the time, it was Chairman Jiang. There was an instruction to start this thing, organ transplantation,” said Bai Shuzhong, the former health minister of the General Logistics Department, to undercover human rights investigators last year in a telephone call. Bai, speaking at a time of political upheaval, had been led to believe that he was speaking to internal Party investigators.

Jiang “gave an instruction … to sell kidneys, do operations,” Bai recalled, and “after Chairman Jiang issued the order, we all did a lot of anti-Falun Gong work.”

Harvesting the organs of Falun Gong practitioners appeared to be the ideal fix to satiate Jiang’s blood lust—the persecution had already disenfranchised and demonized Falun Gong practitioners, and their incarceration in the hundreds of thousands guaranteed Chinese hospitals a steady supply of fresh organs to generate profits from.

Having taken this course, しかしながら, Jiang couldn’t let go of power. If he was found guilty of issuing an order that ended in the murder of thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, and then finally millions of his fellow countrymen, he could face charges of genocide and crimes against humanity.

But if those whose hands were also stained with blood held the reins of power, Jiang could still hope to see Falun Gong destroyed, and he could enjoy impunity for his crimes.

So Jiang promoted those who perpetuated his persecution, played at Party godfather after relinquishing all official titles, and remained the de facto power in China.

Political Control

Jiang Zemin and his faction dominated the 10-year reign of his successor Hu Jintao.

Hu presided over a Politburo and its Standing Committee that was stacked with Jiang’s loyalists. Men like former security czar ズハウ・ヨンカン and Central Military Commission vice chair ズ・ケイハウ became power centers unto themselves.

Hu’s orders and directives frequently failed to be heard beyond the gates of Zhongnanhai, the official residence of the Party elite, according to reports in overseas Chinese-language media. Operating virtually under Jiang’s thumb, Hu appeared wooden and stilted to foreign observers.

The Falun Gong issue could serve to breach the Jiang Zemin problem because he can’t escape responsibility this way.

— Xin Ziling, Former Chinese defense official

Because Xi Jinping appeared to be cast in the same mold as Hu Jintao—pliant and nonthreatening—Jiang agreed to his succeeding Hu in 2012. The plan was for Xi to serve as an interim head until Bo Xilai, a Politburo member and Party chief of the southwestern megalopolis Chongqing, was able to take the top position.

In Jiang’s eyes, Bo was the perfect character to rule the regime.

“You must show your toughness in handling Falun Gong … it will be your political capital,” Jiang once told his political client Bo, according to veteran Chinese journalist Jiang Weiping. Under Bo’s five-year rule of Chongqing, there were over 700 Falun Gong persecution cases (given the difficulty of getting information out of China, that number is likely to be very understated), according to Minghui.org, 迫害についてじかに情報については、クリアリングハウス.

In the early 2000s, Bo Xilai was governor of northeastern China’s Liaoning Province, which researcher イーサン・ガットマン has described as the “epicenter” of forced organ harvesting in China.

に 2006 in a suburb of Liaoning’s capital Shenyang, the first credible reports of forced organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners emerged. In addition, businesses that plastinated—preserved by replacing body fluids with plastic—the organs of executed prisoners for sale or display grew up in Liaoning during Bo’s rule.

Bo’s ambition proved to be his downfall. Wang Lijun, Bo’s ally and former Chongqing police chief, after he failed to defect at the U.S. Consulate in Chengdu, disclosed to Party Central a plan by Bo and security czar Zhou Yongkang to unseat incoming Party leader Xi Jinping in a coup.

Jiang’s cronies forced Xi into a position of “you live, I die,” and upon taking office in November 2012 he began moving to uproot Jiang’s power.

Recentering Power

As the anti-corruption campaign launched by Xi Jinping swept through the Party’s political organs and economic sectors, thousands of cadres connected to Jiang Zemin’s political network were arrested.

While Xi ripped out the sinews of Jiang’s power, a pattern emerged—many of the top officials investigated by the Party’s internal disciplinary police had, like the disgraced Politburo member Bo Xilai, showed “toughness in handling Falun Gong.”

Li Dongsheng, the former public security deputy minister and head of the “610 Office,” an extralegal organization founded on June 10, 1999, to oversee the persecution of Falun Gong, was one of the first persecutors to fall.

Next to be purged were “untouchable” characters like Zhou Yongkang, former General Office and United Front Department head Ling Jihua, as well as Xu Caihou and Guo Boxiong, the former vice chairs of the regime’s top military governing body.

Near the end of May, overseas Chinese media announced the arrest of close associates of two military generals deeply involved in persecuting Falun Gong.

When Xi’s forces have moved against high-profile targets in the past, they quietly detained them first and only brought charges against them when the moment was judged ripe. If the handling of Jiang Zemin’s case follows this pattern, public charges may be months away.

Changing China

Up until now, Xi’s political interests have been served by taking down those responsible for the persecution of Falun Gong. When Jiang Zemin is charged, Xi will face a moment of truth—whether to end that persecution.

The most obvious reason that Xi Jinping can use to take down Jiang is the crimes he committed against Falun Gong practitioners.

“The Falun Gong issue could serve to breach the Jiang Zemin problem because he can’t escape responsibility this way,” said Xin Ziling, a former defense official with connections to elite cadres with moderate leanings.

“On the issue of persecuting Falun Gong, Jiang Zemin has no support in the Party; not in the National People’s Congress, nor in the State Council,” Xin stressed. “He will be held accountable for the matter.”

Whether Xi will end the genocidal persecution of Falun Gong is not clear, but there are signs that he has opposed it.

In January 2014, Xi closed the regime’s labor camps, key sites used to persecute Falun Gong practitioners.

Under Xi’s leadership, the regime’s highest prosecuting body has accepted over 200,000 criminal complaints by Falun Gong practitioners against Jiang Zemin; two practitioners who filed legal complaints against Jiang during his reign were subjected to cruel torture, and one died from his injuries.

When the former public security minister Li Dongsheng was arrested, his role as 610 Office head was publicized, the first time the regime officially acknowledged, in such a prominent manner, the existence of this secretive organization.

The arrests or legal actions against key members of Jiang’s clique or their families also appear to be announced on or near dates that are significant to Falun Gong.

例えば, security czar Zhou Yongkang was prosecuted on June 11 last year, while Jiang was said to be removed from his residence this June 10—the very date from which the notorious 610 Office got its name.

This April, Xi made three reconciliatory gestures near and on the anniversary of April 25, the date in 1999 Jiang revealed to the Politburo his intentions to suppress Falun Gong following a peaceful petition in Beijing by 10,000 practitioners.

Once the power of the Jiang Zemin faction is ended, China will enter a new era, and Xi, no longer burdened by factional opposition, can freely choose a new direction. If he ends the persecution of Falun Gong, this will be an unprecedented change in communist China. The Chinese people, free from the fetters of the Party, will finally enjoy liberty of conscience.